Nationalism and internationalism in science: the case of the discovery of cosmic rays

  title={Nationalism and internationalism in science: the case of the discovery of cosmic rays},
  author={Per Carlson and Alessandro De Angelis},
  journal={The European Physical Journal H},
AbstractThe discovery of cosmic rays, a milestone in science, comprised of scientists in Europe and North America and took place during a period characterised by nationalism and lack of communication. Many scientists that took part in this research a century ago were intrigued by the penetrating radiation and tried to understand the origin of it. Several important contributions to the discovery of the origin of cosmic rays have been forgotten in particular that of Domenico Pacini, who in June… 

Domenico Pacini, uncredited pioneer of the discovery of cosmic rays

During a series of experiments performed between 1907 and 1911, Domenico Pacini (Marino 1878-Roma 1934), at that time researcher at the Central Bureau of Meteorology and Geodynamics in Roma, studied

International scientific cooperation during the 1930 s . Bruno Rossi and the development of the status of cosmic rays into a branch of physics

International scientific cooperation during the 1930s. Bruno Rossi and the development of the status of cosmic rays into a branch of physics Abstract During the 1920s and 1930s, Italian physicists

One century of cosmic rays - A particle physicist's view

Experiments on cosmic rays and the elementary particles share a common history that dates back to the 19 th century. Following the discovery of radioactivity in the 1890s, the paths of the two fields

From the Division of Geophysics, Meteorology and Geomagnetism: Viktor F. Hess (Wien), MEASUREMENTS OF THE PENETRATING RADIATION DURING SEVEN BALLOON FLIGHTS

At the beginning of the twentieth century, the Austrian (later naturalized American) Victor Hess among others developed a brilliant line of research [1, 2], leading to the final determination of the

Bruno Rossi and Cosmic Rays: From Earth laboratories to Physics in Space

Rossi's career paralleled the evolution of cosmic-ray physics. Starting from the early 1930s his pioneering work on the nature and behavior of cosmic rays led to fundamental contributions in the

Walther Bothe and Bruno Rossi: The birth and development of coincidence methods in cosmic-ray physics

With the advent of the Geiger-Muller counter in the late 1920s, the nature of cosmic rays became accessible to exper- imentation. When used single as cosmic-ray detectors, these devices did not have



Cosmic-ray physics in Italy: An historical overview of the early times

Mr. chairman Signor Ministro, Ladies and Gentlemen. I understand that a great honour is given to me today with the task of addressing you about early times of cosmic-ray research in Italy, when the

The early history of cosmic ray research

We review the prehistory and early history of cosmic ray studies, concentrating on the period 1900–1927. Following the discoveries of the electron and radioactivity just before the turn of the

Domenico Pacini, the forgotten pioneer of the discovery of cosmic rays

AbstractAbout a century ago, cosmic rays were identi ed as being a source of radiationon Earth. The proof came from two independent experiments. The Italianphysicist Domenico Pacini observed the

History of Research in Cosmic Rays.

IN general, discussions of priority, save perhaps in the hands of the historian of science, seem to me to serve no useful purpose, sincethey represent, in the main, the ex parte statements of persons

The History of Cosmic Rays

The history of developments in the cosmic-ray field is traced back to the time when there was uncertainty about the origin of ionization in closed vessels. We then pass through the period when,

Chauvinism and internationalism in science: the International Research Council, 1919-1926

  • A. Cock
  • Political Science
    Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London
  • 1983
The International Research Council, founded in 1919 by representatives of the leading scientific academies of the major Allied nations, was intended to promote international co-operation in science,

Penetrating Radiation at the Surface of and in Water

At the beginning of the twentieth century, two scientists, the Austrian Victor Hess and the Italian Domenico Pacini, developed two brilliant lines of research independently, leading to the

Cosmic Rays

The positron, first detected by Anderson in a cloud photograph, is now known to be one of the main constituents of the rays; and this new member of the group of fundamental particles has very great theoretical interest, since its experimental detection has shown the validity of Dirac's theory of ‘holes’.

Recent Developments in Cosmic Rays

I N order to place the results of the recent studies of cosmic rays in appropriate perspective, let us recall very briefly their early history. It is well known how at the beginning of the present