National Survey of Lead Service Line Occurrence

  title={National Survey of Lead Service Line Occurrence},
  author={David A. Cornwell and Richard A. Brown and Steve H. Via},
  journal={Journal ‐ American Water Works Association},
This article summarizes findings from two AWWA‐sponsored surveys of US community water systems (CWSs) that were conducted to gather information on lead‐containing service lines (LSLs) in different regions of the United States for different sizes (population ranges) of water systems. The major objective of this research was to estimate the number of water systems with LSLs and the approximate number of LSLs nationwide and by region. These estimates were ultimately extrapolated to state… 
Survival Analysis of US Water Service Lines Utilizing a Nationwide Failure Data Set
Research into leakage in water distribution systems in the United States has shown that substantial amounts of real water loss can occur in service lines. The current research therefore sought to,
Lead service line identification: A review of strategies and approaches
Lead service lines (LSLs) represent the greatest source of lead in drinking water. Identifying the locations of LSLs can be challenging, and recent service line (SL) material surveys in Michigan,
Monitoring‐Based Framework to Detect and Manage Lead Water Service Lines
Profile sampling was conducted using 112 dwellings of various types and configurations of water pipes consisting of lead service lines (LSLs). A detailed investigation of plumbing volumes was
Rapid and simple lead service line detection screening protocol using water sampling
Many water systems are challenged with uncertainty regarding service line material type. This work investigated using a simple drinking water flushed sampling approach and a more complicated and
Lead Service Lines: Management and Public Perception in 21 Utilities
Recommendations are suggested to improve LSL records by registering the materials on both the public and the private sides after LSLR, harmonize flushing procedures post‐LSLR, and develop a collaborative approach between contractors and utility staff to increase awareness, maintain L SL records, and ensure post-LSLR flushing.
Full Lead Service Line Replacement: A Case Study of Equity in Environmental Remediation
In the U.S., approximately 9.3 million lead service lines (LSLs) account for most lead contamination of drinking water. As the commitment to replace LSLs with safer materials grows, empirical
Short- and Long-Term Lead Release after Partial Lead Service Line Replacements in a Metropolitan Water Distribution System.
System-wide, lead concentrations were however lower in households with PLSLRs as compared to those with no replacement, especially for old P LSLRs, reflecting the importance of implementing full LSL replacement and efficient risk communication.
Sequential drinking water sampling as a tool for evaluating lead in flint, Michigan.
Water quality–pipe deposit relationships in Midwestern lead pipes
For many systems with LSLs, pilot studies with existing LSL scales will be necessary to evaluate and optimize corrosion control, and correspondingly, appropriate residential water sampling will be needed to demonstrate consistent and optimal system corrosion control.


High‐Velocity Household and Service Line Flushing Following LSL Replacement
Customer exposure to lead solely from drinking water may be greater in water containing particles than in water containing only soluble lead. Full and partial lead service line (LSL) replacements and
Understanding Corrosion Control Strategies for Lead
This article reviews the factors that should be considered by individual utilities in developing a lead-solubility control program based on the adjustment of pH, dissolved inorganic carbonate, and
The AWWA Lead Information Survey: A Final Report
Presentation des resultats de la campagne de surveillance des teneurs en plomb des eaux potables distribuees par les membres de l'AWWA
Strategies for assessing optimized corrosion control treatment of lead and copper
Three strategies are commonly used to optimize corrosion control: adjusting pH and alkalinity, developing Pb(iv) scale by maintaining free chlorine residuals throughout the distribution system, and
Lead Service Line Replacement: A Benefit-to-Cost Analysis. AWWA, Denver
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Controlling Lead in Drinking Water
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  • 2015
Controlling Lead in Drinking Water. Water Research Foundation, Denver
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Decennial Census: 2010
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6th ed.). Internal Corrosion and Deposition Control. Water Quality and Treatment: A Handbook of Drinking Water
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Lead Service Lines: A Survey of Utility Replacement Practices
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