National Survey of Lead Service Line Occurrence

@article{Cornwell2016NationalSO,
  title={National Survey of Lead Service Line Occurrence},
  author={David A. Cornwell and Richard A. Brown and Steve H. Via},
  journal={Journal ‐ American Water Works Association},
  year={2016},
  volume={108}
}
This article summarizes findings from two AWWA‐sponsored surveys of US community water systems (CWSs) that were conducted to gather information on lead‐containing service lines (LSLs) in different regions of the United States for different sizes (population ranges) of water systems. The major objective of this research was to estimate the number of water systems with LSLs and the approximate number of LSLs nationwide and by region. These estimates were ultimately extrapolated to state… 
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Many water systems are challenged with uncertainty regarding service line material type. This work investigated using a simple drinking water flushed sampling approach and a more complicated and
Lead Service Lines: Management and Public Perception in 21 Utilities
TLDR
Recommendations are suggested to improve LSL records by registering the materials on both the public and the private sides after LSLR, harmonize flushing procedures post‐LSLR, and develop a collaborative approach between contractors and utility staff to increase awareness, maintain L SL records, and ensure post-LSLR flushing.
Full Lead Service Line Replacement: A Case Study of Equity in Environmental Remediation
In the U.S., approximately 9.3 million lead service lines (LSLs) account for most lead contamination of drinking water. As the commitment to replace LSLs with safer materials grows, empirical
Short- and Long-Term Lead Release after Partial Lead Service Line Replacements in a Metropolitan Water Distribution System.
TLDR
System-wide, lead concentrations were however lower in households with PLSLRs as compared to those with no replacement, especially for old P LSLRs, reflecting the importance of implementing full LSL replacement and efficient risk communication.
Sequential drinking water sampling as a tool for evaluating lead in flint, Michigan.
Water quality–pipe deposit relationships in Midwestern lead pipes
TLDR
For many systems with LSLs, pilot studies with existing LSL scales will be necessary to evaluate and optimize corrosion control, and correspondingly, appropriate residential water sampling will be needed to demonstrate consistent and optimal system corrosion control.
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