National Character Does Not Reflect Mean Personality Trait Levels in 49 Cultures

@article{Terracciano2005NationalCD,
  title={National Character Does Not Reflect Mean Personality Trait Levels in 49 Cultures},
  author={Antonio Terracciano and Ahmed M. Abdel-Khalek and N Ad{\'a}m and Lucia Adamovov{\'a} and Chang-kyu Ahn and Hyun-nie Ahn and Bader Mohammed Alansari and Lidia Alcalay and Jueri Allik and Alois Angleitner and Mar{\'i}a Dolores Avia and Lindsay E. Ayearst and Claudio Barbaranelli and Andrew Beer and M A Borg-Cunen and Denis Bratko and Marina Brunner-Sciarra and Lisa Budzinski and Nathalie Camart and Donatien Dahourou and Filip De Fruyt and M P de Lima and Gregorio H. Del Pilar and Ed Diener and Ruth Falzon and K. R Fernando and Em{\'i}lia Fickov{\'a} and Ronald Fischer and Carmen Flores-Mendoza and M. Arif Ghayur and Sami G{\"u}lg{\"o}z and Bo Hagberg and Jamin B. Halberstadt and Metta Suryatie Halim and Martina Hřeb{\'i}{\vc}kov{\'a} and John Humrichouse and Hans Henrik Jensen and Dragana Djuri{\'c} Jo{\vc}i{\'c} and Fridrik H. J{\'o}nsson and Brigitte Khoury and Waldemar Klinkosz and Goran Kne{\vz}evi{\'c} and Maryanne Lauri and Nora Leibovich and Thomas A. Martin and Iris Maru{\vs}i{\'c} and Khairul Anwar Mastor and Dorota Matsumoto and Margaret McRorie and B. G. Meshcheriakov and Erik Lykke Mortensen and M. Munyae and Janos Nagy and Katsuharu Nakazato and Florence Nansubuga and Shigehiro Oishi and A O Ojedokun and Fritz Ostendorf and Delroy L. Paulhus and Sergey I. Pelevin and J. Petot and Nuska Podobnik and Jose Luis Porrata and V Pramila and Garry R. Prentice and Anu Realo and Norma Re{\'a}tegui and Jean Pierre Rolland and J{\'e}r{\^o}me Rossier and Willibald F. Ruch and Velko S. Rus and M. Luisa S{\'a}nchez-Bernardos and Vanina Schmidt and S Sciculna-Calleja and Andrzej E. Sękowski and Jane Shakespeare‐Finch and Yoshiko Shimonaka and Franco Simonetti and Tilahun Sineshaw and Jerzy Siuta and Patrick Brendan Smith and Paul D. Trapnell and Krista K. Trobst and Lili Wang and Michelle Yik and A Zupan{\vc}i{\vc} and Robert R. McCrae},
  journal={Science},
  year={2005},
  volume={310},
  pages={100 - 96}
}
Most people hold beliefs about personality characteristics typical of members of their own and others' cultures. These perceptions of national character may be generalizations from personal experience, stereotypes with a “kernel of truth,” or inaccurate stereotypes. We obtained national character ratings of 3989 people from 49 cultures and compared them with the average personality scores of culture members assessed by observer ratings and self-reports. National character ratings were reliable… 
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TLDR
It is suggested that warmth and wealth are common determinants of national stereotypes, but that there are also idiosyncratic influences on the perceptions of individual nations.
The validity and structure of culture-level personality scores: data from ratings of young adolescents.
TLDR
Aggregate scores were generalizable across gender, age, and relationship groups and showed convergence with culture-level scores from previous studies of self-reports and observer ratings of adults, but they were unrelated to national character stereotypes.
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