National Character Does Not Reflect Mean Personality Trait Levels in 49 Cultures

  title={National Character Does Not Reflect Mean Personality Trait Levels in 49 Cultures},
  author={Antonio Terracciano and Ahmed M. Abdel-Khalek and N Ad{\'a}m and Lucia Adamovov{\'a} and Chang-kyu Ahn and Hyun-nie Ahn and Bader Mohammed Alansari and Lidia Alcalay and Jueri Allik and Alois Angleitner and Mar{\'i}a Dolores Avia and Lindsay E. Ayearst and Claudio Barbaranelli and Andrew Beer and M A Borg-Cunen and Denis Bratko and Marina Brunner-Sciarra and Lisa Budzinski and Nathalie Camart and Donatien Dahourou and Filip De Fruyt and M P de Lima and Gregorio H. Del Pilar and Ed Diener and Ruth Falzon and K. R Fernando and Em{\'i}lia Fickov{\'a} and Ronald Fischer and Carmen Flores-Mendoza and M. Arif Ghayur and Sami G{\"u}lg{\"o}z and Bo Hagberg and Jamin B. Halberstadt and Metta Suryatie Halim and Martina Hřeb{\'i}{\vc}kov{\'a} and John Humrichouse and Hans Henrik Jensen and Dragana Djuri{\'c} Jo{\vc}i{\'c} and Fridrik H. J{\'o}nsson and Brigitte Khoury and Waldemar Klinkosz and Goran Kne{\vz}evi{\'c} and Maryanne Lauri and Nora Leibovich and Thomas A. Martin and Iris Maru{\vs}i{\'c} and Khairul Anwar Mastor and Dorota Matsumoto and Margaret McRorie and B. G. Meshcheriakov and Erik Lykke Mortensen and M. Munyae and Janos Nagy and Katsuharu Nakazato and Florence Nansubuga and Shigehiro Oishi and A O Ojedokun and Fritz Ostendorf and Delroy L. Paulhus and Sergey I. Pelevin and J. Petot and Nuska Podobnik and Jose Luis Porrata and V Pramila and Garry R. Prentice and Anu Realo and Norma Re{\'a}tegui and Jean Pierre Rolland and J{\'e}r{\^o}me Rossier and Willibald F. Ruch and Velko S. Rus and M. Luisa S{\'a}nchez-Bernardos and Vanina Schmidt and S Sciculna-Calleja and Andrzej E. Sękowski and Jane Shakespeare‐Finch and Yoshiko Shimonaka and Franco Simonetti and Tilahun Sineshaw and Jerzy Siuta and Patrick Brendan Smith and Paul D. Trapnell and Krista K. Trobst and Lili Wang and Michelle Yik and A Zupan{\vc}i{\vc} and Robert R. McCrae},
  pages={100 - 96}
Most people hold beliefs about personality characteristics typical of members of their own and others' cultures. These perceptions of national character may be generalizations from personal experience, stereotypes with a “kernel of truth,” or inaccurate stereotypes. We obtained national character ratings of 3989 people from 49 cultures and compared them with the average personality scores of culture members assessed by observer ratings and self-reports. National character ratings were reliable… 
National Character and Personality
People in all cultures have shared perceptions about the personality characteristics of the typical member of their own culture and of typical members of other cultures. Recent collaborative work has
National Character and
People in all cultures have shared perceptions about the personality characteristics of the typical member of their own culture and of typical members of other cul tures. Recent collaborative work
Personality profiles of cultures: aggregate personality traits.
Aggregate scores on Revised NEO Personality Inventory scales generalized across age and sex groups, approximated the individual-level 5-factor model, and correlated with aggregate self-report personality scores and other culture-level variables, suggesting that aggregate personality profiles provide insight into cultural differences.
The Inaccuracy of National Character Stereotypes.
Title : The Inaccuracy of National Character Stereotypes
Consensual stereotypes of some groups are relatively accurate, whereas others are not. Previous work suggesting that national character stereotypes are inaccurate has been criticized on several
The Nature of Personality: Genes, Culture, and National Character
In his Perspective, Robins discusses Terracciano et al.'s finding that cultures differ somewhat in aggregate personality levels but those differences are not accurately reflected in stereotypes about national character.
Interpreting GLOBE Societal Practices Scales
Some of the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) Societal Practices scales ask for descriptions of typical personality traits that might be interpreted as judgments of
What Do Cross-National Comparisons of Personality Traits Tell Us?
This study found that country-level self- and peer-report measures of conscientiousness failed as markers of between-nation differences in personality.
Climatic warmth and national wealth: some culture‐level determinants of national character stereotypes
It is suggested that warmth and wealth are common determinants of national stereotypes, but that there are also idiosyncratic influences on the perceptions of individual nations.
The validity and structure of culture-level personality scores: data from ratings of young adolescents.
Aggregate scores were generalizable across gender, age, and relationship groups and showed convergence with culture-level scores from previous studies of self-reports and observer ratings of adults, but they were unrelated to national character stereotypes.


Universal features of personality traits from the observer's perspective: data from 50 cultures.
Factor analyses within cultures showed that the normative American self-report structure was clearly replicated in most cultures and was recognizable in all, and data support the hypothesis that features of personality traits are common to all human groups.
Gender differences in personality traits across cultures: robust and surprising findings.
Secondary analyses of Revised NEO Personality Inventory data from 26 cultures (N = 23,031) suggest that gender differences are small relative to individual variation within genders; differences are
Toward a Geography of Personality Traits
It has long been believed that personality traits vary by geographicallocation, but few studies have examined the worldwide distribution of personality profiles. Using the five-factor model of
Trait psychology and culture: exploring intercultural comparisons.
  • R. McCrae
  • Psychology
    Journal of personality
  • 2001
This conceptualization provides a new framework for studying personality and culture at three levels, and shows that Trait psychology can serve as a useful complement to cultural perspectives on human nature and personality.
Personality in cultural context: methodological issues.
Core methodological issues are bias and equivalence: a taxonomy and a brief overview of statistical procedures to examine equivalence are presented, with a focus on procedures for assessing structural equivalence.
The Authoritarian Personality
The Authoritarian Personality "invented a set of criteria by which to define personality traits, ranked these traits and their intensity in any given person on what it called the 'F scale' (F for
Ethnic and National Stereotypes: The Princeton Trilogy Revisited and Revised
Three studies assessed changes in the content, consensus, and favorableness of 10 ethnic and national stereotypes by replicating and extending the Princeton trilogy. Results indicated that throughout
Measuring sex stereotypes : a thirty-nation study
A study of gender roles in thirty countries from Peru to Malaysia, which tests the perceptions of both children and adults. The authors uncover an array of ideas about gender and sex roles that are
What's wrong with cross-cultural comparisons of subjective Likert scales?: The reference-group effect.
Although cultural experts agreed that East Asians are more collectivistic than North Americans, cross-cultural comparisons of trait and attitude measures failed to reveal such a pattern, the problematic nature of this reference-group effect was demonstrated.