Nasalance patterns in esophageal speech.

@article{Colyar1980NasalancePI,
  title={Nasalance patterns in esophageal speech.},
  author={T C Colyar and Jakob M\oller Christensen},
  journal={Journal of communication disorders},
  year={1980},
  volume={13 1},
  pages={43-8}
}
Velopharyngeal activity during esophageal speech was investigated indirectly by use of TONAR II instrumentation, which measures the oral--nasal acoustic ratio. Eight very good esophageal speakers who used an injection type of insufflation served as subjects. Each subject read three standardized passages containing varying amounts of nasal consonants. The results indicated that these speakers have a slower, but functional, velopharyngeal mechanism. 

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