Escherichia coli Maltose-Binding Protein Induces M1 Polarity of RAW264.7 Macrophage Cells via a TLR2- and TLR4-Dependent Manner
We assessed the efficacy of a fusion protein consisting of the 25-kDa antigenic region of Porphyromonas gingivalis hemagglutinin A and the Escherichia coli maltose-binding protein (25k-hagA-MBP) as a nasal vaccine for the prevention of oral infection with P. gingivalis. Nasal immunization with 25k-hagA-MBP induced high levels of 25k-hagA-specific serum IgG, serum IgA, and salivary IgA antibodies in a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent manner. These antibody responses were maintained for at least 1 year after immunization. Analysis of cytokine responses showed that nasal administration of 25k-hagA-MBP induced antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells producing interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-5, but not gamma interferon (IFN-γ), in the spleen and cervical lymph nodes (CLNs). Furthermore, increased numbers of CD11c(+) CD8α(+), but not CD11c(+) CD11b(+) or CD11c(+) B220(+), dendritic cells with upregulated expression of CD80, CD86, CD40, and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) molecules were noted in the spleen, CLNs, and nasopharynx-associated lymphoreticular tissues (NALT). Interestingly, when 25k-hagA-MBP or cholera toxin (CT) was given intranasally to enable examination of their presence in neuronal tissues, the amounts of 25k-hagA-MBP were significantly lower than those of CT. Importantly, mice given 25k-hagA-MBP nasally showed a significant reduction in alveolar bone loss caused by oral infection with P. gingivalis, even 1 year after the immunization. These results suggest that 25k-hagA-MBP administered nasally would be an effective and safe mucosal vaccine against P. gingivalis infection and may be an important tool for the prevention of chronic periodontitis in humans.