Narrative Structures in Computer and Video Games: Part 1: Context, Definitions, and Initial Findings

@article{Ip2011NarrativeSI,
  title={Narrative Structures in Computer and Video Games: Part 1: Context, Definitions, and Initial Findings},
  author={Barry Ip},
  journal={Games and Culture},
  year={2011},
  volume={6},
  pages={103 - 134}
}
  • Barry Ip
  • Published 1 March 2011
  • Psychology
  • Games and Culture
This essay is the first of a two-part article examining the use of narrative in computer and video games, which provides an overview and discussion of the definitions and representation of stories, plots, and narratives. A range of traditional and emerging narrative techniques are considered, including The Hero’s Journey, three-act structure, the portrayal of human emotions, and character archetypes, from where an in-depth examination of interactive narrative is performed on a range of old and… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Analyzing the game narrative: structure and technique
TLDR
This research seeks to develop a descriptive framework to characterize and describe interactive and game narratives by applying and extending narrative theory and applies this framework to three games to unravelled how various narrative principles and techniques operate in games.
The Myth of 'Universal' Narrative Models - Expanding the Design Space of Narrative Structures for Interactive Digital Narratives
TLDR
This paper raises awareness of alternative structures and simultaneously introduces implementable narrative structures with the aim to expand the design space and range of analytical models for IDN.
Looking past the action : a study of the effects of structure on video game communities
This thesis explores the effects of ludic structure—defined as the elements of game play not considered content—on video game communities. Counter to the focus on video game content and its effects
Player Choices, Game Endings and the Design of Moral Dilemmas in Games
TLDR
The Moral Gameplay Taxonomy has been developed and will be a valuable tool for examining how the design of moral dilemmas can affect player perceived agency and enjoyment in games.
Narrative Control and Player Experience in Role Playing Games: Decision Points and Branching Narrative Feedback
This paper reports an experimental study that investigated two research problems: first, how does narrative structure mediate the phenomenological experience(s) of role-playing games (RPGs)? Does
Directing narrative in gameplay: player interaction in shaping narrative in the witcher 3
TLDR
Results from a diary study over a two-week period while playing one narrative-drive game demonstrate the combined narrative structures (linear and branching) in The Witcher 3.
Effects of Narrative Structure and Salient Decision Points in Role Playing Games
This research-in-progress paper reports an experimental study that investigates two research problems: first, how does narrative structure impact the experience of role-playing games (RPGs)? And
Narrative Structure and Player Experience in Role-Playing Games
TLDR
The experiment suggests that both narrative structure and number of salient decision points impact on game play experience of RPGs.
Exploring player choice and morality concepts in video games
Though there are numerous video gaming studies on player choices and morality within and without virtual worlds, most of the research in the area has been quantitative in nature and focused on very
Once Upon a Design - Storytelling and Interactive Fiction in the Design Process
TLDR
The results of this work demonstrate that hypertext preserves the functions of scenarios and personas to introduce a subject, explore a scenario, and address a particular design problem, while successfully implementing interactive elements and a non-sequential story structure to understand the context of the story based on the goals and ideas of the reader.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 59 REFERENCES
Stand up and take your place: identifying narrative elements in narrative adventure and role-play games
This article reports results from a series of empirical studies exploring narrative dimensions of adventure and role-play in computer-game design. It identifies aspects of narrative employed in such
Narrative as Virtual Reality: Immersion and Interactivity in Literature and Electronic Media
From the Publisher: Is there a significant difference in attitude between immersion in a game and immersion in a movie or novel? What are the new possibilities for representation offered by the
Genre trouble : narrativism and the art of simulation
, 1 rc media for telling stories, while the opposing side t laims that stories and games are different structures I hat are in effect doing opposite things. One crucial .1spect of this debate is
Setting the scene: playing digital director in interactive storytelling and creation
TLDR
Instead of inventing the ultimate virtual narrator, this work suggests developing layers of run-time engines that allow authors to work with directions on each single layer separately—from selecting high-level dramatic structures down to directing animated actors.
Narrative as Virtual Reality: Immersion and Interactivity in Literature and Electronic Media
Marie-Laure Ryan. Narrative as Virtual Reality: Immersion and Interactivity in Literature and Electronic Media. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001. xiii + 399. $23.95 paper. Narrative as
Towards digital narrative for children: from education to entertainment, a historical perspective
TLDR
The history of children's literature as it has developed from oral tradition through print and now into digital environments is presented to encourage a more positive attitude to the significant opportunities new technologies offer for reshaping the way in which narrative for children is conceived and presented.
Game Design Narrative for Learning: Appropriating Adventure Game Design Narrative Devices and Techniques for the Design of Interactive Learning Environments
TLDR
This analysis presents a brief overview of game genres and the role of narrative in popular adventure game design, along with an analysis of how narrative supports problem solving in adventure games.
Half-Real: Video Games between Real Rules and Fictional Worlds
A video game is half-real: we play by real rules while imagining a fictional world. We win or lose the game in the real world, but we slay a dragon (for example) only in the world of the game. In
Character Development And Storytelling For Games
TLDR
This chapter discusses the roots of new Storytelling, how to enable a Story in Virtual Worlds to Life, and the importance of respecting characters.
The Cambridge introduction to narrative
Preface 1. Narrative and life: The universality of narrative Narrative and time Narrative perception 2. Defining narrative: The bare minimum Story and narrative discourse The mediation (construction)
...
1
2
3
4
5
...