Napoleon's Uncongenial Sea: Guerrilla Warfare in Navarre during the Peninsular War, 1808-14

  title={Napoleon's Uncongenial Sea: Guerrilla Warfare in Navarre during the Peninsular War, 1808-14},
  author={John Lawrence Tone},
  journal={European History Quarterly},
  pages={355 - 382}
  • J. Tone
  • Published 1 July 1996
  • History
  • European History Quarterly
On 5 February 1812 the Spanish guerrilla Mina trapped Napoleon’s best counter-insurgency force, General Soulier’s ’Infemals’, in the hills of eastern Navarre. Four thousand of Mina’s men, the most formidable guerrilla army in the peninsula, assaulted Soulier’s 2000 troops in the town of Sangfesa. Two years earlier Mina might have hesitated, even with a numerical advantage of two to one, to face French veterans entrenched in a defensive position. By 1812, however, Soulier’s crack troops were no… 


The Fatal Knot: The Guerrilla War in Navarre and the Defeat of Napoleon in Spain
  • J. Tone
  • Political Science, History
  • 1994
John Tone recounts the dramatic story of how, between 1808 and 1814, Spanish peasants created and sustained the world's first guerrilla insurgency movement, thereby playing a major role in Napoleon's
For an earlier example see George Desdevises du Dezert, L'Espagne de l'Ancien Régime , 3 vols
    Les Français en Espagne, souvenirs des guerres de la péninsule
      C8, 378, and in General Soulier's report of the action, which was captured by the insurgents and reproduced in Andrés Martin, Historia de los sucesos militares de la Divisi&oacute
      • 1953
      As examples of the latter see Hermilio Olóriz
      • 1910
      For more variations on this theme by nineteenth-century authors, see Angel Ganivet
      • Los guerrilleros de 1808, 2 vols (Madrid 1887) and Manuel Pardo de Andrade, Los guerrilleros gallegos de
      Barcelona durante la ocupaci&oacute
      • 1949
      Espoz y Mina, op. cit., 21
        La desamortizacíon eclesiástica en Navarra
        • 1972