Nanotechnology: Synthesis of carbon 'onions' in water

  title={Nanotechnology: Synthesis of carbon 'onions' in water},
  author={Noriaki Sano and H. Wang and Manish Chhowalla and Ioannis Alexandrou and Gehan A. J. Amaratunga},
The fabrication of carbon nanomaterials usually calls for expensive vacuum systems to generate plasmas and yields are disappointingly low. Here we describe a simple method for producing high-quality spherical carbon nano-'onions' in large quantities without the use of vacuum equipment. The nanoparticles, which have C60 cores surrounded by onion-like nested particles, are generated by an arc discharge between two graphite electrodes submerged in water. This technique is economical and… 
Structure of carbon onions and nanotubes formed by arc in liquids.
High-resolution transmission electron microscopy is employed to examine the shape of the nanoparticles and the purity of the final material produced under various conditions in a cathodic arc between two graphitic electrodes immersed in liquids.
Low-cost synthesis of single-walled carbon nanohorns using the arc in water method with gas injection
A method of synthesizing bulk amounts of single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) on a significant low-cost basis is proposed based on the 'arc in water' method with N2 injection into the arc plasma.
Properties of carbon onions produced by an arc discharge in water
A simple method to fabricate high-quality nanoparticles including spherical carbon onions and elongated fullerene-like nanoparticles similar to nanotubes in large quantities without the use of vacuum
Carbon nanohorns hybridized with a metal-included nanocapsule
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The effect of different organic media on synthesis of carbon nanomaterials in this study was discussed, Onion-like Fullerenes (OLFs) and Multi-walled carbon nanotubes can be synthsized by arc


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X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy showed that fullerene single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) are nearly uniform in diameter and that they self-organize into “ropes,” which consist of 100 to 500 SWNTs in a two-dimensional triangular lattice with a lattice constant of 17 angstroms.
Nanoparticles of Layered Compounds with Hollow Cage Structures (Inorganic Fullerene-Like Structures)†
Using the paradigm of carbon fullerenes, it is shown that nanoparticles of inorganic compounds with a layered structure, like MoS2, are unstable against bending and form hollow closed clusters,
Solid C60: a new form of carbon
A new form of pure, solid carbon has been synthesized consisting of a somewhat disordered hexagonal close packing of soccer-ball-shaped C60 molecules. Infrared spectra and X-ray diffraction studies