Nanotechnology: Synthesis of carbon 'onions' in water

@article{Sano2001NanotechnologySO,
  title={Nanotechnology: Synthesis of carbon 'onions' in water},
  author={Noriaki Sano and H. Wang and Manish Chhowalla and Ioannis Alexandrou and Gehan A. J. Amaratunga},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2001},
  volume={414},
  pages={506-507}
}
The fabrication of carbon nanomaterials usually calls for expensive vacuum systems to generate plasmas and yields are disappointingly low. Here we describe a simple method for producing high-quality spherical carbon nano-'onions' in large quantities without the use of vacuum equipment. The nanoparticles, which have C60 cores surrounded by onion-like nested particles, are generated by an arc discharge between two graphite electrodes submerged in water. This technique is economical and… 
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The effect of different organic media on synthesis of carbon nanomaterials in this study was discussed, Onion-like Fullerenes (OLFs) and Multi-walled carbon nanotubes can be synthsized by arc
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