Nanosecond X-ray diffraction of shock-compressed superionic water ice

@article{Millot2019NanosecondXD,
  title={Nanosecond X-ray diffraction of shock-compressed superionic water ice},
  author={Marius Millot and Federica Coppari and J. Ryan Rygg and Antonio Correa Barrios and Sebastien Hamel and Damian C. Swift and Jon H. Eggert},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2019},
  volume={569},
  pages={251-255}
}
Since Bridgman’s discovery of five solid water (H2O) ice phases1 in 1912, studies on the extraordinary polymorphism of H2O have documented more than seventeen crystalline and several amorphous ice structures2,3, as well as rich metastability and kinetic effects4,5. This unique behaviour is due in part to the geometrical frustration of the weak intermolecular hydrogen bonds and the sizeable quantum motion of the light hydrogen ions (protons). Particularly intriguing is the prediction that H2O… 
Polymorphism of superionic ice
Water is abundant in natural environments but the form it resides in planetary interiors remains uncertain. We report combined synchrotron X-ray diffraction and optical spectroscopy measurements of
Dynamic compression of water to conditions in ice giant interiors
TLDR
X-ray diffraction evidence is presented of a body-centered cubic structured H 2 O ice phase that is stable to multi-Mbar pressures and temperatures near the melt boundary, which suggests variable and increased electrical conductivity to greater depths in ice giant planets that may promote the generation of multipolar magnetic fields.
Structure and properties of two superionic ice phases
In the phase diagram of water, superionic ices with highly mobile protons within the stable oxygen sublattice have been predicted at high pressures. However, the existence of superionic ices and the
Superionic iron oxide–hydroxide in Earth’s deep mantle
Water ice becomes a superionic phase under the high pressure and temperature conditions of deep planetary interiors of ice planets such as Neptune and Uranus, which affects interior structures and
Bond strengthening in dense H2O and implications to planetary composition
H2O is an important constituent in planetary bodies, controlling habitability and, in geologically-active bodies, plate tectonics. At pressures within the interior of many planets, the H-bonds in H2O
Tracing the Anharmonicity and Superionic Phase Transition of Hydrous FeO2H
The weak x-ray scattering of hydrogen (H) has brought major challenges to the characterization of superionic transitions in high-pressure ice, hydrides, and hydroxides. Combining first-principles
Evidence and Stability Field of fcc Superionic Water Ice Using Static Compression
Structural transformation of hot dense water ice is investigated by combining synchrotron x-ray diffraction and a laser-heating diamond anvil cell above 25 GPa. A transition from the
Formation of Cubic Ice via Clathrate Hydrate, Prepared in Ultrahigh Vacuum under Cryogenic Conditions.
TLDR
It is suggested that enhanced mobility or diffusion of water molecules during acetone hydrate dissociation enabled crystallization, and this finding implied that CHs might exist in extreme low-pressure environments present in the comets.
X-ray free electron laser heating of water and gold at high static pressure
Probing of reactive materials such as H2O ices and fluids at the high pressures and temperatures of planetary interiors is limited by unwanted chemical reactions and confinement failure. Faster
Formation of porous ice frameworks at room temperature
TLDR
It is demonstrated via molecular dynamics simulations that a class of ultralow-density porous ices with upright channels can be formed spontaneously from liquid water at 300 K with the assistance of carbon nanotube arrays.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 43 REFERENCES
Modulated phases and proton centring in ice observed by X-ray diffraction up to 170 GPa
Because of its open hydrogen-bonded structure, ice shows many structural changes between different crystalline forms under high pressure. Crystallographic studies of these transitions have been
Ultrafast visualization of crystallization and grain growth in shock-compressed SiO2
TLDR
In situ pump–probe XRD measurements on shock-compressed fused silica reveal an amorphous to crystalline high-pressure stishovite phase transition, and the functional form of this grain growth suggests homogeneous nucleation and attachment as the growth mechanism.
Experimental evidence for superionic water ice using shock compression
In stark contrast to common ice, Ih, water ice at planetary interior conditions has been predicted to become superionic with fast-diffusing (that is, liquid-like) hydrogen ions moving within a solid
Static compression of H2O-ice to 128 GPa (1.28 Mbar)
The high-pressure behaviour of H2O is of fundamental importance in both condensed matter and planetary physics1,2. The hydrogen bonding in this system gives rise to a variety of phases at low
High pressure ices
TLDR
H2O will be more resistant to metallization than previously thought, and a sequence of new stable and meta-stable structures for the ground state of ice in the 1–5 TPa (10 to 50 Mbar) regime is found, in the static approximation.
Compression of H 2 O ice to 126 GPa and implications for hydrogen-bond symmetrization: Synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements and density-functional calculations
We examined the volume compression and phase transformations of ${\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}$ ice by a combination of synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements and density-functional calculations up to
Superionic-Superionic Phase Transitions in Body-Centered Cubic H_{2}O Ice.
TLDR
Evidence is brought that there are three distinct phases in the superionic bcc stability field, characterized by extremely fast diffusion of highly delocalized protons and a finite degree of localization of protons along the nonsymmetric O─H⋯O bonds.
New porous water ice metastable at atmospheric pressure obtained by emptying a hydrogen-filled ice
TLDR
The first characterization of a new form of ice, obtained from the crystalline solid compound of water and molecular hydrogen called C0-structure filled ice, is presented, which can adsorb again hydrogen and release it repeatedly, showing a temperature-dependent hysteresis.
Experimental evidence of superionic conduction in H2O ice.
TLDR
It is suggested that the conduction mechanism does not change with pressure-induced hydrogen-bond symmetrization, and the sudden increase of the melting temperature is not related to the onset of superionic conduction, but is attributed to the phase change regarding to the symmetry.
Nanosecond freezing of water under multiple shock wave compression: optical transmission and imaging measurements.
TLDR
The combination of optical transmission and imaging measurements presented here provide the first consistent evidence for freezing on short time scales, and demonstrate heterogeneous nucleation and irregular solid growth during the transformation.
...
...