Nanoparticles in orthodontics, a review of antimicrobial and anti-caries applications

@article{BorzabadiFarahani2014NanoparticlesIO,
  title={Nanoparticles in orthodontics, a review of antimicrobial and anti-caries applications},
  author={Ali Borzabadi-Farahani and Ebrahim Borzabadi and Edward Lynch},
  journal={Acta Odontologica Scandinavica},
  year={2014},
  volume={72},
  pages={413 - 417}
}
Abstract Nanoparticles (NPs) are insoluble particles smaller than 100 nm in size. In order to prevent microbial adhesion or enamel demineralization in orthodontic therapy, two broad strategies have been used. These are incorporating certain NPs into orthodontic adhesives/cements or acrylic resins (nanofillers, silver, TiO2, SiO2, hydroxyapatite, fluorapatite, fluorohydroxyapatite) and coating surfaces of orthodontic appliances with NPs (i.e. coating bracket surfaces with a thin film of nitrogen… 
Antimicrobial Orthodontic Wires Coated with Silver Nanoparticles
: Conventional orthodontic treatment with the use of stainless steel may be detrimental to oral health by promoting demineralizing lesions appearance and increasing adhesion and formation of
Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles on Orthodontic Brackets: A New Alternative in the Prevention of White Spots
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used for their powerful antibacterial effect and their ability to adhere to surfaces due to their size; they are used in different areas of life, mainly in the area
The Effect of CuO Nanoparticles on Antimicrobial Effects and Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Adhesives
Statement of the Problem: Orthodontic appliances facilitate microbial plaque accumulation and increase the chance of white spot lesions. There is a need for new plaque control methods independent of
Effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticle addition into orthodontic adhesive resin on enamel microhardness
White spots are an early sign of enamel demineralization, which may lead to development of dental caries. Enamel demineralization can be determined by examining the microhardness number of the
Effect of Nanostructures on the Properties of Glass Ionomer Dental Restoratives/Cements: A Comprehensive Narrative Review
TLDR
Current developments of glass ionomer cements (GICs) after incorporating various metallic, polymeric, inorganic and carbon-based nanostructures are addressed and a few meaningful conclusions are drawn.
Comparative Evaluation of Antibacterial Effects of Nanoparticle-Incorporated Orthodontic Primer: An In Vitro Study
TLDR
There was a significant increase in the antimicrobial activity of the orthodontic primer modified by the addition of antibacterial agents, and silica-doped nanohydroxyapatite at 0.5% expressed the greatest antibacterial activity among all the nanoparticles.
Application of antibacterial nanoparticles in orthodontic materials
TLDR
This review presents the current development, antibacterial mechanisms, biocompatibility, and application of antibacterial NPs in orthodontic materials.
Evaluation of Antibacterial Effect of Silver Nanoparticle Coated Stainless Steel Band Material – An In vitro Study
Introduction: Decalcification, caries, inflammatory periodontal disease are the most common iatrogenic effects of orthodontic treatment because of failure to maintain proper oral hygiene. Although
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 59 REFERENCES
Prevention of demineralization around orthodontic brackets in vitro.
  • T. R. Sudjalim, M. Woods, D. Manton, E. Reynolds
  • Medicine, Materials Science
    American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics : official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics
  • 2007
Shear bond strength and antibacterial effects of orthodontic composite containing TiO2 nanoparticles.
TLDR
Adding titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles to orthodontic composite enhances its antibacterial effects without compromising the shear bond strength (SBS).
Influence of nanocomposite surface coating on biofilm formation in situ.
Caries and periodontitis, the most wide-spread oral diseases around the world, are caused by bacterial adherence and biofilm formation onto the natural as well as restored tooth surface. One possible
Experimental antimicrobial orthodontic adhesives using nanofillers and silver nanoparticles.
Cytocompatible antifungal acrylic resin containing silver nanoparticles for dentures
TLDR
Results show that PMMA-silver nanoparticle discs significantly reduce adherence of C. albicans and do not affect metabolism or proliferation, and appear not to cause genotoxic damage to cells.
Are nano-composites and nano-ionomers suitable for orthodontic bracket bonding?
TLDR
Nano-composites and nano-ionomers may be suitable for bonding since they fulfil the previously suggested SBS ranges for clinical acceptability, but they are inferior to a conventional orthodontic composite.
Effect of fluoride varnish on demineralization adjacent to brackets bonded with RMGI cement.
TLDR
In vitro evaluation of the effect of a fluoride-releasing cavity varnish on inhibition of enamel demineralization adjacent to orthodontic brackets bonded with RMGI and composite resin cements found it beneficial in reducing lesion formation.
Silver distribution and release from an antimicrobial denture base resin containing silver colloidal nanoparticles.
TLDR
Silver nanoparticles are incorporated in the PMMA denture resin to attain an effective antimicrobial material to help control common infections involving oral mucosal tissues in complete denture wearers.
Effect of a fluoride varnish on demineralization adjacent to orthodontic brackets.
  • M. Todd, R. Staley, M. Kanellis, K. Donly, J. Wefel
  • Medicine
    American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics : official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics
  • 1999
Bacterial colonization associated with fixed orthodontic appliances. A scanning electron microscopy study.
TLDR
Excess composite around the bracket base is the critical site for plaque accumulation due to its rough surface and the presence of a distinct gap at the composite-enamel interface.
...
...