Nanomaterials and nanoparticles: Sources and toxicity

  title={Nanomaterials and nanoparticles: Sources and toxicity},
  author={Cristina Buzea and Ivan I. Pacheco and Kevin Robbie},
This review is presented as a common foundation for scientists interested in nanoparticles, their origin, activity, and biological toxicity. It is written with the goal of rationalizing and informing public health concerns related to this sometimes-strange new science of “nano,” while raising awareness of nanomaterials’ toxicity among scientists and manufacturers handling them. We show that humans have always been exposed to tiny particles via dust storms, volcanic ash, and other natural… 
Current major cancer targets for nanoparticle systems.
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Health hazards associated with nanomaterials
This comprehensive review focuses on the nanomaterials exposure through the skin, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract and their mechanism of toxicity and effect on various organs of the body.
Fabricated nanoparticles: current status and potential phytotoxic threats.
The literature relevant to what phytotoxic impact fabricated nanoparticles (e.g., carbon nanotubes, metallic and metal oxide nanoparticles, and certain other nanomaterials) have on plants is reviewed and a scheme for accessing NP toxicity is proposed.
Toxicity of nanoparticles
Abstract This chapter will focus on the most relevant recent advances in our understanding of nanoparticle toxicity and their adverse health effects in humans. We will show compelling evidence
[Are nanoparticles a new class of environmental toxin?].
Nanomaterial and Nanoparticle: Origin and Activity
Many studies show that nanoparticles are toxic to humans and animals; however, there is a lack of regulations regarding the use of nanoparticles, many being researched and patented for use in agriculture, food industry, and various consumer products.
Toxicity and Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials
The development and advancement of nanotechnology has led to widespread use of nanomaterials (NMs) in a wide variety of fields, including the environment, agriculture, biomedicine, industry, and
Influence of Nanotoxicity on Human Health and Environment: The Alternative Strategies.
In this review, adverse impacts of nanoparticles on human and the environment are highlighted with special emphasis on green nanoscience as a sustainable alternative.
Nanoparticles and nanomaterials as inevitable modern toxic agents. Review. Part 1. Application of nanoparticles and occupational nanotoxicology.
Methods for assessing various aspects of behavior, based on various brain functions, including cognitive ones, made it possible to obtain a clear idea of ​​the often negative consequences of contact with NPs for higher nervous activity, as described in detail and systematically in the presented review.


Research strategies for safety evaluation of nanomaterials, part IV: risk assessment of nanoparticles.
Recent toxicity and exposure data, combined with therapeutic and other related literature, are beginning to shape risk assessments that will be used to regulate the use of nanomaterials in consumer products.
Nanotoxicology: An Emerging Discipline Evolving from Studies of Ultrafine Particles
Results of older bio-kinetic studies with NSPs and newer epidemiologic and toxicologic studies with airborne ultrafine particles can be viewed as the basis for the expanding field of nanotoxicology, which can be defined as safety evaluation of engineered nanostructures and nanodevices.
Research strategies for safety evaluation of nanomaterials. Part VI. Characterization of nanoscale particles for toxicological evaluation.
Recommendations regarding how best to approach nanomaterial characterization include using proper sampling and measurement techniques, forming multidisciplinary teams, and making measurements as close to the biological action point as possible.
Airborne Nanostructured Particles and Occupational Health
Nanotechnology is leading to the development in many field, of new materials and devices in many fields that demonstrate nanostructure-dependent properties. However, concern has been expressed that
The potential risks of nanomaterials: a review carried out for ECETOC
This review shows that only few specific nanoparticles have been investigated in a limited number of test systems and extrapolation of this data to other materials is not possible, and limited ecotoxicological data for nanomaterials precludes a systematic assessment of the impact of Nanoparticles on ecosystems.
Combustion-derived nanoparticles: A review of their toxicology following inhalation exposure
CDNP can be seen as a group of particulate toxins unified by a common mechanism of injury and properties of translocation which have the potential to mediate a range of adverse effects in the lungs and other organs and warrant further research.
Comparison of the abilities of ambient and manufactured nanoparticles to induce cellular toxicity according to an oxidative stress paradigm.
It is demonstrated that ROS generation and oxidative stress are a valid test paradigm to compare NP toxicity, and particle interactions with cellular components are capable of generating oxidative stress.
Nanomedicines and nanotoxicology: some physiological principles.
Evidence from the literature is considered which suggests that understanding of how individual nanoparticles behave and what toxicity may be expected from them is incomplete, and that biodistribution to specific sites can occur for nanoparticles with particular characteristics.
Manufactured Nanomaterials (Fullerenes, C60) Induce Oxidative Stress in the Brain of Juvenile Largemouth Bass
This is the first study showing that uncoated fullerenes can cause oxidative damage and depletion of GSH in vivo in an aquatic species, and further research needs to be done to evaluate the potential toxicity of manufactured nanomaterials, especially with respect to translocation into the brain.