Nanobacteria: an infectious cause for kidney stone formation.

  title={Nanobacteria: an infectious cause for kidney stone formation.},
  author={Neva Ciftcioglu and Mikael Bj{\"o}rklund and K Kuorikoski and Karin E Bergstr{\"o}m and E. Olavi Kajander},
  journal={Kidney international},
  volume={56 5},
BACKGROUND Nanobacteria are cytotoxic, sterile-filterable, gram-negative, atypical bacteria detected in bovine and human blood. Nanobacteria produce carbonate apatite on their cell walls. Data on Randall's plaques suggest that apatite may initiate kidney stone formation. We assessed nanobacteria in 72 consecutively collected kidney stones from Finnish patients. METHODS Nanobacteria and kidney stone units were compared using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Demineralized kidney stones were… CONTINUE READING


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