Nalbuphine, a non-controlled opioid analgesic, and its potential use in research mice

@article{Narver2015NalbuphineAN,
  title={Nalbuphine, a non-controlled opioid analgesic, and its potential use in research mice},
  author={Heather Lyons Narver},
  journal={Lab Animal},
  year={2015},
  volume={44},
  pages={106-110}
}
Nalbuphine is an inexpensive, non-controlled, opioid analgesic that has been in clinical use for decades. A kappa opioid receptor agonist and mu opioid receptor antagonist, nalbuphine causes fewer adverse effects than other opioid analgesics. The author reviews the characteristics of nalbuphine, analyzes studies of nalbuphine in mice and explores the potential use of nalbuphine to treat pain in research mice. In analgesiometric studies in mice, nalbuphine ameliorates both somatic and visceral… 
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