NOD1 and NOD2 in inflammation, immunity and disease.

  title={NOD1 and NOD2 in inflammation, immunity and disease.},
  author={Tapas Mukherjee and Elise Sofie Hovingh and Elisabeth G. Foerster and Mena Abdel-Nour and Dana J. Philpott and Stephen E. Girardin},
  journal={Archives of biochemistry and biophysics},

Inborn Errors in the LRR Domain of Nod2 and Their Potential Consequences on the Function of the Receptor

NOD2′s role in cellular signaling pathways is summarized and the possible consequences of common NOD2 polymorphisms on the structure and function of this receptor are looked at.

Mediators of Metabolism: An Unconventional Role for NOD1 and NOD2

The current knowledge of how NOD1 and NOD2 may mediate metabolism in health and disease is summarized, as well as areas of future investigation are highlighted.

The crosstalk between microbial sensors ELMO1 and NOD2 shape intestinal immune responses

The results indicated that the crosstalk between microbial sensors in enteric infection and inflammatory diseases impacts the fate of the bacterial load and disease pathogenesis.

N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate enhances type I interferon anti-viral responses through activation of non-canonical NOD2 signaling

It is demonstrated that the pyrimidine synthesis inhibitor N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate synergizes with type I interferon to enhance antiviral responses through activation of a non-canonical NOD2 signaling pathway.

NOD-like receptors in autoimmune diseases.

The structures and signaling pathways of NLRs are described, the recent progress on NLR signaling in the occurrence and development of autoimmune diseases are summarized, as well as numerous natural products and synthetic compounds targeting NLRs for the treatment of autoimmune Diseases are highlighted.

Methotrexate inhibition of muropeptide transporter SLC46A2 controls psoriatic skin inflammation

These studies define SLC46A2 as a transporter of NOD1 activating muropeptides, with critical roles in the skin barrier, and identify this transporter as an important target for anti-inflammatory intervention.

Anaplasma phagocytophilum Induces TLR- and MyD88-Dependent Signaling in In Vitro Generated Murine Neutrophils

TLR rather than NLR or CLR are critical for the detection of A. phagocytophilum by neutrophils although in vivo defective TLR-signaling is compensated probably because of the redundancy of the immune system.

Trace levels of peptidoglycan in serum underlie the NOD-dependent cytokine response to endoplasmic reticulum stress

It is confirmed that thapsigargin induces NOD-dependent pro- inflammatory signaling in epithelial cells and proposed that cellular perturbations that affect intracellular Ca2+ can trigger internalization of peptidoglycan trace contaminants found in culture serum, thereby stimulating pro-inflammatory signaling.

Application and prospect of targeting innate immune sensors in the treatment of autoimmune diseases

This review emphasizes the roles of different PRRs in activating both innate and adaptive immunity, which can coordinate to trigger autoimmune responses, and may prompt the formulation of novel ideas for developing therapeutic strategies against autoimmune diseases by targeting PRRs-related signals.

Regulation of Immune Homeostasis via Muramyl Peptides-Low Molecular Weight Bioregulators of Bacterial Origin

To create networks, data from numerous biomedical and clinical research databases were used to prepare expert systems for use in pharmacological and biomedical research with an emphasis on muramyl dipeptides, with the aim of understanding intrinsic pathways of homeostasis.



NOD proteins: regulators of inflammation in health and disease

Recent findings have expanded the scope of the cellular compartments monitored by NOD1 and NOD2 and have elucidated the signalling pathways that are triggered downstream of NOD activation, indicating that a balanced level of N OD signalling is crucial for the maintenance of immune homeostasis.

NOD1 and NOD2 Signaling in Infection and Inflammation

The role of NOD1 and NOD2 in the recognition and response to intracellular pathogens, and on their ability to signal in response to non-peptidoglycan-containing pathogens, such as viruses and protozoan parasites are focused on.

Signalling pathways and molecular interactions of NOD1 and NOD2

This work focuses on the molecular interactions between these NOD proteins and other intracellular molecules to elucidate the mechanisms by which NOD1 and NOD2 contribute to the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis and the induction of mucosa inflammation.

Nod2: The intestinal gate keeper

Recent developments about the role of NOD2 in shaping the gut commensal microbiota and pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites, and the mechanisms by which Nod2 mutations participate in disease occurrence are presented.

Nod2-Dependent Regulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity in the Intestinal Tract

It is shown that protective immunity mediated by Nod2 recognition of bacterial muramyl dipeptide is abolished in Nod1-deficient mice, providing a possible mechanism for Nod 2 mutations in CD.

Nod1 and Nod2 Regulation of Inflammation in the Salmonella Colitis Model

Nod1 and Nod2 can modulate inflammation and mediate efficient clearance of bacteria from the mucosal tissue during Salmonella colitis, but their role is dependent on the expression of the SPI-2 TTSS.

A Novel Motif in the Crohn's Disease Susceptibility Protein, NOD2, Allows TRAF4 to Down-regulate Innate Immune Responses*

This work identifies the atypical tumor necrosis factor-associated factor (TRAF) family member, TRAF 4, as a key negative regulator of NOD2 signaling and defines a TRAF4 binding motif within NOD1 involved in termination of innate immune signaling responses.

T cell intrinsic role of Nod2 in promoting type I immunity against Toxoplasma gondii

This work found that Nod2−/− mice had less clearance of Toxoplasma gondii and lower interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production and demonstrated a T cell–intrinsic defect that is critical for host defense against T. Gondii.

The Bacterial Peptidoglycan-Sensing Molecules NOD1 and NOD2 Promote CD8+ Thymocyte Selection

The results demonstrate that NOD1 and NOD2 promote the positive selection/maturation of CD8 single-positive thymocytes in a thymocyte-intrinsic manner, raising the intriguing possibility that abnormal lymphocyte responses observed in NOD-dependent inflammatory diseases are not driven solely by microbial signals in the gut, but may also involve intrinsic lymphocyte defects resulting from impaired CD8 T cell thymic development.