NIR-to-NIR two-photon excited CaF2:Tm3+,Yb3+ nanoparticles: multifunctional nanoprobes for highly penetrating fluorescence bio-imaging.


In this study, we report on the remarkable two-photon excited fluorescence efficiency in the "biological window" of CaF(2):Tm(3+),Yb(3+) nanoparticles. On the basis of the strong Tm(3+) ion emission (at around 800 nm), tissue penetration depths as large as 2 mm have been demonstrated, which are more than 4 times those achievable based on the visible… (More)
DOI: 10.1021/nn202490m


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