Optineurin associates with the podocyte Golgi complex to maintain its structure
Optineurin is a ubiquitously expressed multifunctional cytoplasmic protein encoded by OPTN gene. The expression of optineurin is induced by various cytokines. Here we have investigated the molecular mechanisms which regulate optineurin gene expression and the relationship between optineurin and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). We cloned and characterized human optineurin promoter. Optineurin promoter was activated upon treatment of HeLa and A549 cells with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha). Mutation of a putative NF-kappaB-binding site present in the core promoter resulted in loss of basal as well as TNFalpha-induced activity. Overexpression of p65 subunit of NF-kappaB activated this promoter through NF-kappaB site. Oligonucleotides corresponding to this putative NF-kappaB-binding site showed binding to NF-kappaB. TNFalpha-induced optineurin promoter activity was inhibited by expression of inhibitor of NF-kappaB (IkappaBalpha) super-repressor. Blocking of NF-kappaB activation resulted in inhibition of TNFalpha-induced optineurin gene expression. Overexpressed optineurin partly inhibited TNFalpha-induced NF-kappaB activation in Hela cells. Downregulation of optineurin by shRNA resulted in an increase in TNFalpha-induced as well as basal NF-kappaB activity. These results show that optineurin promoter activity and gene expression are regulated by NF-kappaB pathway in response to TNFalpha. In addition these results suggest that there is a negative feedback loop in which TNFalpha-induced NF-kappaB activity mediates expression of optineurin, which itself functions as a negative regulator of NF-kappaB.