author={Steven M Paul},
  journal={Pediatric Research},
  • S. Paul
  • Published 1 March 1992
  • Biology, Medicine, Chemistry
  • Pediatric Research
It is now well accepted that certain steroids rapidly alter the excitability of neurons via non-genomic mechanisms, resulting in behavioral effects within minutes following parenteral administration. Almost 50 years ago Selye first identified the sedative/anesthetic properties of pregnane and androstane steroids including the 3α-hydroxy A-ring reduced metabolites of progesterone and deoxycorticosterone, allopregnanolone and allotetrahydroDOC respectively. We have shown that these 3α-hydroxy A… 
Relating neurosteroid modulation of inhibitory neurotransmission to behaviour
How neurosteroids acting upon GABAARs influence neuronal signalling, as well as how such effects may acutely and persistently influence behaviour, are considered and the case for developing selective PAMs of δ‐GABAAR subtypes for the treatment of psychiatric disorders is explored.
Progesterone: A Steroid with Wide Range of Effects in Physiology as Well as Human Medicine
The aim of this work is to show the mechanisms of action of progesterone and its metabolites, the physiological and pharmacological actions of prog estrogen and its synthetic analogues in human medicine, as well as the impacts of its production and use on the environment.
Effects of prenatal stress on neuroactive steroid responses to acute stress in adult male and female rats
The data suggest that neuroactive steroid modulation of GABAergic signalling following stress exposure may be affected in a sex‐ and region‐specific manner in PNS offspring.
Development of neuroactive steroids for the treatment of postpartum depression
Preclinical findings suggest that large fluctuations in neurosteroid hormone levels can induce physiological plasticity in the expression of functional GABAA receptors during pregnancy and the postpartum period, and that deficits in this plasticity may underpin a biological mechanism that contributes to the manifestation of depressive symptoms.
TRPM3 in Brain (Patho)Physiology
The available data regarding the roles of TRPM3 in the brain are summarized, and these data are correlated with the neuropathological processes in which this ion channel may be involved.


Steroid hormone metabolites are barbiturate-like modulators of the GABA receptor.
Two metabolites of the steroid hormones progesterone and deoxycorticosterone are potent barbiturate-like ligands of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor-chloride ion channel complex and potentiated the inhibitory actions of GABA in cultured rat hippocampal and spinal cord neurons, which may explain the ability of certain steroid hormones to rapidly alter neuronal excitability.
Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors regulate steroid biosynthesis.
Results suggest that ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition site acting on this mitochondrial receptor can enhance steroid production, and this action may contribute specificity to the pharmacological profile of drugs preferentially acting on the Benzodiazepines associated with the outer membrane of certain mitochondrial populations.
Inverse modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid- and glycine-induced currents by progesterone.
It is shown that in voltage-clamped neurons progesterone itself enhances GABA-induced chloride currents but, surprisingly, antagonizes those induced by glycine, suggesting that endogenous progester one or its metabolites may differentially modulate the inhibitory actions of these two neurotransmitters.
Additional observations on the effects (sedation, sleep-like behavior, and a spectrum of seizure activity) of Reichstein's compound S and DHEA are reported.
Synthesis, metabolism, and pharmacological activity of 3 alpha-hydroxy steroids which potentiate GABA-receptor-mediated chloride ion uptake in rat cerebral cortical synaptoneurosomes.
Molecular modeling of the active steroids based on quantitative structure-activity relationships provides evidence to support the stereospecificity of the binding interactions and suggests that there may be more than one type of steroid binding site associated with the GABAA-receptor-mediated chloride ionophore.
Steroid modulation of the chloride ionophore in rat brain: structure-activity requirements, regional dependence and mechanism of action.
In vitro studies of steroids active at the gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor regulated Cl- channel labeled by [35S]-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate reveal additional structural requirements necessary for activity, providing additional support for the hypothesis that some of these steroids may be involved in the homeostatic regulation of brain excitability via the GABAA-BZ receptor complex.
Modulation of the GABA receptor complex by a steroid anaesthetic