NEMATOCYST INHIBITION IN CHIRONEX FLECKERI

@article{Hartwick1980NEMATOCYSTII,
  title={NEMATOCYST INHIBITION IN CHIRONEX FLECKERI},
  author={R. F. Hartwick and Vic I. Callanan and John A. Williamson},
  journal={Medical Journal of Australia},
  year={1980},
  volume={1}
}
Laboratory tests indicate that methylated spirits, widely espoused as a first‐aid treatment for jellyfish stings, causes massive discharge of nematocysts in living tentacles of the box‐jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri. This action, together with demonstrated hazards of flammability and intoxication, casts doubt on this substance as a treatment for Chironex stings. In an attempt to find a substitute which will be effective in inactivating unfired nematocysts in the tentacles adhering to sting… 
Jellyfish Stings and Their Management: A Review
TLDR
There seems to be evidence and consensus on oral/topical analgesics, hot water and ice packs as effective painkillers and on 30 s application of domestic vinegar to prevent further discharge of unfired nematocysts remaining on the skin.
Vinegar as a disarming agent to prevent further discharge of the nematocysts of the stinging hydromedusa Olindias sambaquiensis.
TLDR
This is the first report of the use of vinegar in disarming O sambaquiensis nematocysts and includes preliminary observations on its use in managing the stings of hydromedusae.
First aid treatment of the sting from the hydroid Lytocarpus philippinus: the structure of, and in vitro discharge experiments with its nematocysts
TLDR
Dousing thoroughly with water to dislodge adhering undischarged nematocyst material, followed by application of ice for pain relief, is advised, the same first aid treatment recommended for most non-cubozoan jellyfish stings.
The effect of vinegar on discharged nematocysts of Chironex fl eckeri
TLDR
Concerns are raised about the statistical analyses and data interpretation reported by Welfare, Little, Pereira, and Seymour about the recovery of venom protein from a membrane after the application of vinegar subsequent to electrically stimulating tentacle cnidae to discharge.
Cubozoan Sting-Site Seawater Rinse, Scraping, and Ice Can Increase Venom Load: Upending Current First Aid Recommendations
TLDR
The authors' results do not support scraping or seawater rinsing to remove adherent tentacles, and the best outcomes occurred with the use of venom-inhibiting technologies (Sting No More® products).
Differing Effects of Vinegar on Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) and Carybdea marsupialis (Cnidaria: Cubozoa) Stings—Implications for First Aid Protocols
TLDR
The results suggest that the use of vinegar cannot be universally recommended, whereas in case of a cubozoan C. marsupialis sting, the inhibitory effect of vinegar makes it the ideal rinse solution, in cases of a scyphozoan P. noctiluca sting, vinegar application may be counterproductive, worsening the pain and discomfort of the stung area.
Marine stingers in Far North Queensland
  • J. L. Holmes
  • Medicine
    The Australasian journal of dermatology
  • 1996
TLDR
Two box jellyfish in particular cause problems in tropical Queensland waters and emergency treatment comprises inactivation of stinging capsules by vinegar, removal of tentacles, analgesia, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the administration of the specific antivenom.
Firing the Sting: Chemically Induced Discharge of Cnidae Reveals Novel Proteins and Peptides from Box Jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) Venom
TLDR
A newly developed rapid, repeatable and cost effective technique of venom preparation, using ethanol to induce nematocyst discharge and to recover venom contents in one step is reported, suggesting that ethanol extraction method could augment future cnidarian venom proteomics research efforts.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 19 REFERENCES
Disarming the box-jellyfish: nematocyst inhibition in Chironex fleckeri.
TLDR
Laboratory tests indicate that methylated spirits, widely espoused as a first-aid treatment for jellyfish stings, causes massive discharge of nematocysts in living tentacles of the box-jellyfish, Chir onex fleckeri, casting doubt on this substance as a treatment for Chironex stings.
OBSERVATIONS ON JELLYFISH STINGINGS IN NORTH QUEENSLAND
TLDR
Observations on Jellyfish Stlngings in North Queensland, by J. H. Barnes and G. T. Hueston.
Injuries to Man From Marine Invertebrates in the Australian Region
TLDR
The greatest part of the book is given to coelenterates and the many types of "jellyfish" stings they may produce, some mild, some excruciatingly painful, and some on occasion lethal.
Venomous Australian Creatures: The Action of their Toxins and the Care of the Envenomated Patient
TLDR
In cases of certain venoms against which no “specific” treatment has yet been developed, an approach to management based upon clinical and experimental evidence is presented.
Studies on Australian Cubomedusae, Including a New Genus and Species Apparently Harmful to Man
TLDR
It is probable that Chironex fleckeri is responsible for severe stingings and deaths of humans in northern Austrahan waters, but proof of this hypothesis is lacking and the systematics of the Cubomedusae are reviewed in the light of the differences in the gonads.
...
...