Corpus ID: 2288728

NBOMe: new potent hallucinogens--pharmacology, analytical methods, toxicities, fatalities: a review.

@article{Kyriakou2015NBOMeNP,
  title={NBOMe: new potent hallucinogens--pharmacology, analytical methods, toxicities, fatalities: a review.},
  author={Chrystalla Kyriakou and Enrico Marinelli and Paolo Frati and Alessandro Santurro and M Afxentiou and Simona Zaami and F P Busard{\`o}},
  journal={European review for medical and pharmacological sciences},
  year={2015},
  volume={19 17},
  pages={
          3270-81
        }
}
OBJECTIVE NBOMe is a class of emerging new psychoactive substances that has recently gained prominence in the drug abuse market. [...] Key MethodMATERIALS AND METHODS Relevant scientific articles were identified from Medline, Cochrane Central, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, EMBASE and Google Scholar, through June 2015 using the following keywords: "NBOMe", "Nbomb", "Smiles", "intoxication", "toxicity" "fatalities", "death", "pharmacology", "5-HT2A receptor", "analysis" and "analytical methods".Expand
NBOMes–Highly Potent and Toxic Alternatives of LSD
TLDR
An updated overview of the pharmacological properties, pattern of use, metabolism, and desired effects associated with NBOMe use is provided and the analytical methods most commonly used for detection and identification of NBOMes and their metabolites are presented. Expand
Hallucinogen-Like Action of the Novel Designer Drug 25I-NBOMe and Its Effect on Cortical Neurotransmitters in Rats
TLDR
The data from this study suggest that hallucinogenic activity of 25I-NBOMe seems to be related with the increase in extracellular GLU level-mediated via cortical 5-HT2A receptors, and may modulate its effect on neurotransmitters and HTR. Expand
NBOMe hallucinogenic drug exposures reported to the Danish Poison Information Centre.
TLDR
A steep and sudden rise in reported NBOMe exposures in Denmark within 3-4 years is shown, and the results suggest that the use has started to decline. Expand
NBOMe compounds: An overview about analytical methodologies aiming their determination in biological matrices
Abstract NBOMe are synthetic drugs that are highly known in the market for drugs abuse, which are relatively cheaper compared to other drugs and can be easily acquired mainly through the Internet.Expand
Neurochemical and Behavioral Profiling in Male and Female Rats of the Psychedelic Agent 25I-NBOMe
TLDR
This study fills the gap of knowledge on the behavioral effects of 25I-NBOMe and the risks associated with its ingestion and focuses the attention on sex differences that might be useful to understand the trend of consumption as well as to recognize and treat intoxication and overdose symptoms. Expand
25C-NBOMe, a Novel Designer Psychedelic, Induces Neurotoxicity 50 Times More Potent Than Methamphetamine In Vitro
TLDR
It is found that 25C-NBOMe potently reduced cell viability of SH-SY5Y, PC12, and SN4741 cells, with IC50 values of 89, 78, and 62 μM, respectively, and that the inhibition of the Akt pathway and activation of the ERK cascade might be involved in25C- NBOMe-induced neurotoxicity. Expand
Neurochemical and Behavioral Effects of a New Hallucinogenic Compound 25B-NBOMe in Rats
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)phenethylamine (25B-NBOMe) is a hallucinogen exhibiting high binding affinity for 5-HT 2A/C serotonin receptors. In the present work, we investigated itsExpand
Multimodal imaging of hallucinogens 25C- and 25I-NBOMe on blotter papers.
TLDR
Quantitative results for different drug hotspots revealed a heterogeneous distribution of the drugs on the blotter paper implying an inherent risk of overdosing for the consumers. Expand
A novel screening method for 64 new psychoactive substances and 5 amphetamines in blood by LC-MS/MS and application to real cases.
TLDR
A fully validated screening method in blood for the simultaneous detection of 69 substances, including 64 NPS, by a dynamic multiple reaction monitoring analysis through liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is described. Expand
Identification of psychedelic new psychoactive substances (NPS) showing biased agonism at the 5-HT2AR through simultaneous use of β-arrestin 2 and miniGαq bioassays.
Psychedelic new psychoactive substances (NPS), compounds exerting their main pharmacological effects through the activation of the serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR), continuously comprise a substantialExpand
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References

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Toxicities associated with NBOMe ingestion-a novel class of potent hallucinogens: a review of the literature.
TLDR
Clinicians need to have a high index of suspicion for NBOMe ingestion in patients reporting the recent use of hallucinogens, because NBome ingestion is associated with severe adverse effects. Expand
2C-I-NBOMe, an “N-bomb” that kills with “Smiles”. Toxicological and legislative aspects
TLDR
A comprehensive review of chemistry, availability, pharmacology, and toxicology of 2C-I-NBOMe, the N-benzyl-derivative of the iodo-substituted dimethoxy-phenethylamine, and the current legislation on this newly introduced drug are reviewed. Expand
The NBOMe hallucinogenic drug series: Patterns of use, characteristics of users and self-reported effects in a large international sample
TLDR
The NBOMe drugs have emerged recently, are frequently bought using the internet and have similar effects to other hallucinogenic drugs; however, they may pose larger risks, due to the limited knowledge about them, their relatively low price and availability via the internet. Expand
2C or Not 2C: Phenethylamine Designer Drug Review
TLDR
Treatment of 2C intoxication is primarily supportive, but immediate action is required in the context of excited delirium, hyperthermia, and seizure activity. Expand
25I-NBOMe related death in Australia: a case report.
TLDR
The decedent in the presented case had a post mortem aortic non-preserved blood concentration of 25I-NBOMe of approximately 28 μg/L, a concentration that appears to be much higher than those previously reported in non-fatal cases of toxicity and analytically confirmed NBOMe related fatalities. Expand
The Pharmacology of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: A Review
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There is new interest in LSD as an experimental tool for elucidating neural mechanisms of (states of) consciousness and there are recently discovered treatment options with LSD in cluster headache and with the terminally ill. Expand
Analytical characterization of three hallucinogenic N-(2-methoxy)benzyl derivatives of the 2C-series of phenethylamine drugs.
TLDR
Analytical properties of three new hallucinogenic substances identified in blotter papers seized from the drug market are reported, which are N-(2-methoxy)benzyl derivatives of the 2C-series of phenethylamine drugs. Expand
A fatal poisoning involving 25C-NBOMe.
TLDR
The cause of death was determined to be a fatal overdose of 25C-NBOMe in combination with amphetamine intake, and the first quantification of 25 C-NB OMe in biological specimens from a fatal intoxication case is reported. Expand
A case of 25I-NBOMe (25-I) intoxication: a new potent 5-HT2A agonist designer drug
TLDR
A case of self-reported exposure to 25-I (25I-NBOMe), a novel phenethylamine derivative, with subsequent quantification in serum is described, a potent new synthetic drug with apparent significant behavioral toxicity that can be detected and quantified in serum. Expand
Designer drugs 2015: assessment and management
TLDR
Clinicians should keep designer drugs in mind when evaluating substance use in young adults or in anyone presenting with acute neuropsychiatric complaints, and long-term treatment of designer drug use disorder can be challenging and is complicated by a lack of evidence to guide treatment. Expand
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