NATURAL FREEZING SURVIVAL IN ANIMALS

@article{Storey1996NATURALFS,
  title={NATURAL FREEZING SURVIVAL IN ANIMALS},
  author={Kenneth B. Storey and Janet M Storey},
  journal={Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics},
  year={1996},
  volume={27},
  pages={365-386}
}
  • K. Storey, J. M. Storey
  • Published 1 November 1996
  • Biology
  • Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics
Natural freeze-tolerance supports the winter survival of many animals including numerous terrestrial insects, many intertidal marine invertebrates, and selected species of terrestrially hibernating amphibians and reptiles. Freeze-tolerant animals typically endure the conversion of 50% or more of total body water into extracellular ice and employ a suite of adaptations that counter the negative consequences of freezing. Specific adaptations control the sites and rate of ice formation to prevent… 
Molecular Physiology of Freeze Tolerance in Vertebrates.
TLDR
Recent advances in the understanding of amphibian and reptile freeze tolerance with a focus on cell preservation strategies, membrane transporters for water and cryoprotectants, energy metabolism, gene/protein adaptations, and the regulatory control of freeze-responsive hypometabolism at multiple levels are providing a much more complete picture of life in the frozen state.
Biological ice nucleation and ice distribution in cold-hardy ectothermic animals.
TLDR
For many ectotherms, overwintering survival depends on the avoidance or regulation of ice nucleation and growth within their body fluids, and extraorgan sequestration of ice is a major adaptation of freeze tolerance.
Mitochondria and the Frozen Frog
TLDR
Mitochondria in the frozen frog is explored to identify adaptive strategies that defend and adapt mitochondria in animals that can be frozen for six months or more every year and freeze-responsive upregulation of mitochondria-encoded genes is triggered by declining oxygen and likely has an adaptive function in supporting cellular energetics under indeterminate lengths of whole body freezing.
The ins and outs of water dynamics in cold tolerant soil invertebrates.
  • M. Holmstrup
  • Biology, Environmental Science
    Journal of thermal biology
  • 2014
Reprint of: The ins and outs of water dynamics in cold tolerant soil invertebrates.
  • M. Holmstrup
  • Biology, Environmental Science
    Journal of thermal biology
  • 2015
Drivers of plasticity in freeze tolerance in the intertidal mussel Mytilus trossulus
TLDR
Plasticity in freeze tolerance in an intertidal mussel is correlated with an accumulation of osmolytes, supporting the hypothesis that o smolytes are important cryoprotectants in intert tidal invertebrates.
Skin ice nucleators and glycerol in the freezing-tolerant frog Litoria ewingii
TLDR
Skin secretions from L. ewingii were sampled along with microhabitat substrate and tested for the presence of INAs, which help control ice formation in the body, and showed for the first time that skin secretions also contain active INAs.
Overwintering adaptations in earthworms
TLDR
A mini-review of the physiological adaptations to frost in earthworms is given, finding that if dehydrated, cocoons will not freeze, even at low sub-zero temperatures, and thus winter survival is ensured.
Vertebrate Freeze Tolerance: Molecular Studies of Signal Transduction and Gene Expression
TLDR
Novel results include the identification of genes, protein products and cell functions that have never before been implicated in natural freezing survival in amphibians and reptiles.
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References

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TLDR
This review focuses on one strategy of winter cold hardiness: freeze tolerance of terrestrially-hibernating reptiles and amphibians.
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TLDR
The data support the proposal that various adaptations for natural freeze tolerance may have been derived from preexisting mechanisms for dealing with water stress in amphibians and that cell volume change may be one of the signals involved in triggering and sustaining molecular adaptations that support freezing survival.
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The vast majority of ectothermic animals on earth must elude exposure to subzero temperatures to prevent the lethal freezing of body fluids. For this reason the northern ranges of many ectotherms are
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TLDR
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TLDR
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  • K. Storey
  • Biology
    The American journal of physiology
  • 1987
TLDR
The data suggest that frogs do not maintain cryoprotectants throughout the winter in anticipation of freezing but only synthesize and/or maintain glucose during actual freezing episodes, suggesting a peripheral vasoconstriction as freezing progresses, leaving circulation open to central organs for as long as possible.
Freeze tolerant frogs: cryoprotectants and tissue metabolism during freeze–thaw cycles
TLDR
Tissue-specific metabolism in the freeze tolerant frog, Rana sylvatica, was monitored over a course of 3 days of freezing exposure at −2.5 °C followed by 11 days of thawing at 3 °C to indicate this organ as the major site of cryoprotectant production during freezing.
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