NATO Enlargement—Was There a Promise?

  title={NATO Enlargement—Was There a Promise?},
  author={Mark Kramer and Joshua R. Itzkowitz Shifrinson},
  journal={International Security},
Joshua Shifrinson’s article “Deal or No Deal?” presents a oawed account of the negotiations in 1990 that led to the reuniacation of Germany.1 His observations at the end of the piece about Russian foreign policy under Vladimir Putin overlook the continuity of Russian policy toward neighboring countries since 1992, long before Putin came to power.2 In an article published in April 2009, I set out to determine whether it was true that, at some point during the 1990 negotiations on Germany, Soviet… Expand
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  • J. Buchan
  • Economics, Medicine
  • Nursing standard (Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain) : 1987)
  • 2008
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Der Kreml und die deutsche Wiedervereinigung, 1990 [The Kremlin and German reunification
  • 1990
For further Soviet interest in European security as German reunification began, see diary entries by Gorbachev advisor Anatoly Chernyaev for January 3, 21, and 28
  • The Diary of Anatoly S. Chernyaev
  • 1990
For our respective interpretations of the February 1990 talks, see Mark Kramer
  • Washington Quarterly
I thank Thomas Blanton for this observation
    Ibid. 12. Quoted in Ray McGovern
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