N-Substituted Piperazines Abused by Humans Mimic the Molecular Mechanism of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, or ‘Ecstasy’)

@article{Baumann2005NSubstitutedPA,
  title={N-Substituted Piperazines Abused by Humans Mimic the Molecular Mechanism of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, or ‘Ecstasy’)},
  author={Michael H Baumann and Robert D. Clark and Allison G Budzynski and John S. Partilla and Bruce E. Blough and Richard B. Rothman},
  journal={Neuropsychopharmacology},
  year={2005},
  volume={30},
  pages={550-560}
}
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, or ‘Ecstasy’) is an illicit drug that stimulates the release of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) from neurons. Recent evidence reveals that drug users are ingesting piperazine analogs, like 1-benzylpiperazine (BZP, or ‘A2’) and 1-(m-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP, or ‘Molly’), to mimic psychoactive effects of MDMA. In the present study, we compared the neurochemistry of MDMA, BZP, and TFMPP in rats. The effects of MDMA, BZP, and TFMPP on… 
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TLDR
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TLDR
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Dissociative and sympathomimetic toxicity associated with recreational use of 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine (TFMPP) and 1-benzylpiperzine (BZP)
TLDR
This is the first case series of confirmed toxicity associated with recreational use of TFMPP in combination with BZP, with clinical features not consistent with BzP toxicity.
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TLDR
Increase in knowledge of the neurochemical substrates of the rewarding effects of MDMA may contribute to the design of new pharmacological treatments for individuals who develop MDMA dependence.
Neurochemical and Neurotoxic Effects of MDMA (Ecstasy) and Caffeine After Chronic Combined Administration in Mice
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Evidence is provided that long-term caffeine administration has a powerful influence on functions of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons in the mouse brain and on neurotoxic effects evoked by MDMA.
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