N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Relationship to Inflammation in Healthy Adults and Adults Exhibiting Features of Metabolic Syndrome

@article{Robinson2013N3PF,
  title={N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Relationship to Inflammation in Healthy Adults and Adults Exhibiting Features of Metabolic Syndrome},
  author={Lindsay E. Robinson and Vera C. Mazurak},
  journal={Lipids},
  year={2013},
  volume={48},
  pages={319-332}
}
Individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, therefore, research has been directed at reducing various components that contribute to MetS and associated metabolic impairments, including chronic low-grade inflammation. Epidemiological, human, animal and cell culture studies provide evidence that dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), including alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and… 
Polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy and metabolic syndrome: a review.
This review presents available evidence for possible application of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in pregnant obese women with metabolic syndrome (MS) and focuses on prophylaxis
Integrated Immunomodulatory Mechanisms through which Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Attenuate Obese Adipose Tissue Dysfunction
TLDR
Fish oil-derived dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the form of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic Acid have been demonstrated to attenuate obese AT dysfunction through multiple mechanisms, ultimately affecting AT immune cellularity and function, adipokine production, and metabolic signaling pathways, all of which will be discussed herein.
Dietary strategies to reduce metabolic syndrome
TLDR
The most recent information on successful dietary modifications that can reduce the parameters associated with MetS is presented and serve as evidence to support the therapeutic treatment of MetS through diet.
The impact of EPA and DHA on ceramide lipotoxicity in the metabolic syndrome
TLDR
There is intriguing potential for EPA and DHA to improve Cer lipotoxicity and related MetS parameters, but more research is warranted.
Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Its Role in Human Health
TLDR
The present chapter explores in detail the biological functions and dietary benefits of the omega-3 fatty acids in regulating metabolism of the body and its protective role in prevention many diseases.
Plasma fatty acid patterns reflect dietary habits and metabolic health: A cross-sectional study.
TLDR
Distinct fatty acid patterns were identified which were related to demographics, dietary habits, and metabolic profile and a pattern higher in VLCSFA and lower in ALA was associated with healthier metabolic outcome.
Effects of a new dietary strategy in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome:: The resmena diet
TLDR
The RESMENA diet proved to be more effective throughout a self-control period, where the participants had to apply on their own previous acquired dietary habits, regarding body composition, and by reducing transaminase levels and maintaining uric acid and serum glucose levels in patients with MetS.
Docosahexaenoic acid-enriched canola oil increases adiponectin concentrations: a randomized crossover controlled intervention trial.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 76 REFERENCES
Omega-3 fatty acids and metabolic syndrome: effects and emerging mechanisms of action.
Omega-3 fatty acid supplements improve the cardiovascular risk profile of subjects with metabolic syndrome, including markers of inflammation and auto-immunity
TLDR
It appears that omega 3 improves the cardiovascular risk profile of subjects with metabolic syndrome, having effects on weight, systolic blood pressure, lipid profile and markers of inflammation and autoimmunity.
Inflammation, obesity, and fatty acid metabolism: influence of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on factors contributing to metabolic syndrome.
TLDR
Preliminary evidence is reviewed regarding the role of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in modulating each of the components of the triad of adiposity, inflammation, and fatty acid metabolism, with particular attention to therole of the postprandial period as a contributor to the pathophysiology of MetS.
Nutritional intervention to reduce the n−6/n−3 fatty acid ratio increases adiponectin concentration and fatty acid oxidation in healthy subjects
TLDR
A decreased n−6/n−3 PUFA ratio can be achieved with simple dietary counselling, resulting in multiple, potentially favourable effects on the metabolic and inflammatory profiles.
Low- and high-dose plant and marine (n-3) fatty acids do not affect plasma inflammatory markers in adults with metabolic syndrome.
TLDR
No beneficial effects were detected for any of the 3 inflammatory markers investigated in response to (n-3) FA in adults with metabolic syndrome regardless of dose or source.
Association of serum n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with lipids in 3 populations of middle-aged men.
TLDR
Serum n-6 and n-3 PUFAs are inversely associated with triglycerides across populations.
(n-3) Fatty acids alleviate adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance: mechanistic insights.
TLDR
An update on the pathogenesis of adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity is provided and potential mechanisms by which (n-3) PUFA prevent and reverse these changes and the implications in human health are discussed.
Impact of foods enriched with n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on erythrocyte n-3 levels and cardiovascular risk factors.
TLDR
Sustainable increases in dietary intakes and erythrocyte levels of n-3 long-chain PUFA can be achieved through regular consumption of suitably enriched processed foods and such increases may be associated with reduced CV risk.
...
...