Mystery cloud of AD 536

  title={Mystery cloud of AD 536},
  author={Richard B. Stothers},
Dry fogs appear in the atmosphere when large volcanic eruptions inject massive quantities of fine silicate ash and aerosol-forming sulphur gases into the troposphere and stratosphere. Although the ash gravitationally settles out within weeks, the aerosols spread around the globe and can remain suspended in the stratosphere for years. Because solar radiation is easily absorbed and backscattered by the volcanic particles, a haziness in the sky and a dimming of the Sun and Moon are produced. Very… Expand
Cloudy and clear stratospheres before A.D. 1000 inferred from written sources
[1] How can observational information about stratospheric transparency in the preinstrumental era be acquired today? It may be reasonably assumed that a high turbidity in the stratosphere is almostExpand
Self-limiting physical and chemical effects in volcanic eruption clouds
We have constructed one-dimensional aerosol microphysical and photochemical models to examine the chemistry of stratospheric volcanic clouds. Estimates of the stratospheric inputs of several keyExpand
Volcanic Dry Fogs, Climate Cooling, and Plague Pandemics in Europe and the Middle East
Dry fogs spawned by large volcanic eruptions cool the climate by partially blocking incident sunlight and perturbing atmospheric circulation patterns. The climatic and epidemiological consequences ofExpand
Volcanic eruptions have the potential to force global climate, provided they are explosive enough to emit at least 1–5 megaton of sulfur gases into the stratosphere. The sulfuric acid produced duringExpand
Volcanic Winter? Climatic Effects of the Largest Volcanic Eruptions
Calculations suggest that the largest volcanic eruptions could have significant effects on global climate. We estimate the amount of sulfur volatiles that could have been released in very largeExpand
Climate-Volcanism Feedback and the Toba Eruption of ∼74,000 Years Ago
Abstract A general feedback between volcanism and climate at times of transition in the Quaternary climate record is suggested, exemplified by events accompanying the Toba eruption (∼74,000 yr ago),Expand
Climatic Impact of Volcanic Eruptions
  • G. Zielinski
  • Environmental Science, Medicine
  • TheScientificWorldJournal
  • 2002
Using analysis of ice-core, tree-ring, and geologic records in conjunction with climate proxy data indicates that multiple eruptions may force climate on decadal time scales, as appears to have occurred during the Little Ice Age. Expand
Volcanic Eruptions over the Last 5,000 Years from High Elevation Tree-Ring Widths and Frost Rings
Some tree-ring records, due to their great age, the annual resolution of their dates, and their sensitivity to the climatic effects of large volcanic eruptions, are useful in understanding theExpand
Volcanic eruptions dry fogs and the European palaeoenvironmental record: localised phenomena or hemispheric impacts?
Abstract This paper addresses the climatic and environmental significance of historical records of dry fogs, particularly from Mediterranean sources, which have previously been interpreted asExpand
Climatic and societal impacts of a volcanic double event at the dawn of the Middle Ages
Volcanic activity in and around the year 536 CE led to severe cold and famine, and has been speculatively linked to large-scale societal crises around the globe. Using a coupled aerosol-climateExpand


Volcanic dust in the atmosphere; with a chronology and assessment of its meteorological significance
  • H. Lamb
  • Geology
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences
  • 1970
After defining the terms commonly used in reporting volcanic eruptions and noting previous approaches to assessment of their magnitudes, this study proceeds to examine aspects of importance, orExpand
On Volcanic and Other Particulate Turbidity Anomalies
Publisher Summary The effects of global atmospheric turbidity on weather and climate is evaluated based on the available information on anomalous, long-lived charges of turbidity over large portionsExpand
Volcanic eruptions in the Mediterranean before A.D. 630 from written and archaeological sources
Written and archaeological sources from the Mediterranean region have been exhaustively searched for evidence of historical volcanism before the year A.D. 630. Volcanic eruptions are identified hereExpand
Geology and Petrology of Rabaul Caldera, Papua New Guinea
Rabaul caldera is unusual in that it was formed by two episodes of construction and collapse on an older basalt volcano. One collapse occurred around 3,500 yr B.P. and the latest around 1,400 yr B.P.Expand
Historic Volcanism, European Dry Fogs, and Greenland Acid Precipitation, 1500 B.C. to A.D. 1500
Historic dry fogs in Europe, acid precipitation in Greenland, and major explosive volcanic eruptions correlate well with each other between 1500 B.C. and A.D. 1500. European (Mediterranean andExpand
Impurity sources Of F−, Cl−, NO3 − and SO4 2− in Greenland and Antarctic precipitation
Five polar impurity sources are proposed: anthropogenic NO3− and SO42− in recent Greenland but not Antarctic snow; marine aerosols, the dominant Cl− source; volcanic eruptions, which produceExpand
Greenland ice sheet evidence of post-glacial volcanism and its climatic impact
Acidity profiles along well dated Greenland ice cores reveal large volcanic eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere during the past 10,000 yr. Comparison with a temperature index shows that clusteredExpand
Ancient and mediaeval observations of comets and novae in Chinese sources
Abstract The existing catalogues on ancient and mediaeval Chinese comets and novae known to western astronomers are neither complete nor accurate mainly because they do not generally come from theExpand