Myside Bias, Rational Thinking, and Intelligence

@article{Stanovich2013MysideBR,
  title={Myside Bias, Rational Thinking, and Intelligence},
  author={Keith E. Stanovich and Richard F. West and Maggie E. Toplak},
  journal={Current Directions in Psychological Science},
  year={2013},
  volume={22},
  pages={259 - 264}
}
Myside bias occurs when people evaluate evidence, generate evidence, and test hypotheses in a manner biased toward their own prior opinions and attitudes. Research across a wide variety of myside bias paradigms has revealed a somewhat surprising finding regarding individual differences. The magnitude of the myside bias shows very little relation to intelligence. Avoiding myside bias is thus one rational thinking skill that is not assessed by intelligence tests or even indirectly indexed through… 

Tables from this paper

Does “putting on your thinking cap” reduce myside bias in evaluation of scientific evidence?

Abstract The desire to maintain current beliefs can lead individuals to evaluate contrary evidence more critically than consistent evidence. We test whether priming individuals’ scientific reasoning

Myside bias, school performance, and the polarity of music preferences

ABSTRACT The study examined myside bias among Bulgarian students using a research paradigm devised by Stanovich and West (2007. Natural myside bias is independent of cognitive ability. Thinking &

Bias in bias recognition: People view others but not themselves as biased by preexisting beliefs and social stigmas

TLDR
People exhibit bias in bias recognition, and this metacognitive bias may be remedied when it is highlighted to people that the authors are all susceptible to biasing influences.

Reasoning ability predicts irrational worldview but not conspiracy belief

TLDR
Using confirmatory factor analysis, this work found the robust link between conspiracy belief and other irrational beliefs and suggests that effective reasoning cannot prevent even highly intelligent people from endorsing conspiracy theories.

Illegitimate Values, Confirmation Bias, and Mandevillian Cognition in Science

  • U. Peters
  • Philosophy
    The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science
  • 2020
The proposal that values in science are illegitimate and that they should be counteracted whenever they direct inquiry to the confirmation of predetermined conclusions is not uncommon in the

Reasons and the “ Motivated Numeracy Effect ”

Does the ability to reason well make one less likely to engage in motivated reasoning? Following a paradigm used by Kahan, Peters, Dawson, and Slovic (2013), this study aims to replicate, extend, and

What Is the Function of Confirmation Bias?

  • U. Peters
  • Philosophy, Psychology
    Erkenntnis
  • 2020
Confirmation bias is one of the most widely discussed epistemically problematic cognitions, challenging reliable belief formation and the correction of inaccurate views. Given its problematic nature,

Stepping Outside the Echo Chamber: Is Intellectual Humility Associated With Less Political Myside Bias?

TLDR
Testing the hypothesis that intellectual humility is associated with less bias in two community samples establishes IH as one of a small handful psychological features known to predict less political myside bias.

Ideological Bias in Social Psychological Research

“Getting it right” is the sine qua non of science (Funder et al., 2013 ). Science can tolerate individual mistakes and fl awed theories, but only if it has reliable mechanisms for correction.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 26 REFERENCES

On the failure of cognitive ability to predict myside and one-sided thinking biases

Two critical thinking skills—the tendency to avoid myside bias and to avoid one-sided thinking—were examined in three different experiments involving over 1200 participants and across two different

On the relative independence of thinking biases and cognitive ability.

TLDR
The authors present a framework for predicting when cognitive ability will and will not correlate with a rational thinking tendency, including some of the most classic and well-studied biases in the heuristics and biases literature.

Individual differences in rational thought.

Much research in the last 2 decades has demonstrated that humans deviate from normative models of decision making and rational judgment. In 4 studies involving 954 participants, the authors explored

Personal theories, intellectual ability, and epistemological beliefs: adult age differences in everyday reasoning biases.

TLDR
The findings support a 2-process view of adult cognitive development and suggest that the tendency to rely on heuristic information processing increases with age.

Natural myside bias is independent of cognitive ability

Natural myside bias is the tendency to evaluate propositions from within one's own perspective when given no instructions or cues (such as within-participants conditions) to avoid doing so. We

Associations between myside bias on an informal reasoning task and amount of post‐secondary education

SUMMARY One hundred and twelve undergraduate university students completed an informal reasoning task in which they were asked to generate arguments both for and against the position they endorsed on

A psychological point of view: Violations of rational rules as a diagnostic of mental processes

The target article focuses exclusively on System 2 and on reasoning rationality: the ability to reach valid conclusions from available information, as in the Wason task. The decision-theoretic

Motivated Skepticism in the Evaluation of Political Beliefs

We propose a model of motivated skepticism that helps explain when and why citizens are biased-information processors. Two experimental studies explore how citizens evaluate arguments about

The locus of the myside bias in written argumentation

The myside bias in written argumentation entails excluding other side information from essays. To determine the locus of the bias, 86 Experiment 1 participants were assigned to argue either for or

Bias in adolescents' everyday reasoning and its relationship with intellectual ability, personal theories, and self-serving motivation.

TLDR
The author presented 60 9th- and 12th-graders with hypothetical arguments that contained logical fallacies and found that intellectual ability, particularly verbal ability, was the best predictor of each index of everyday reasoning.