Myrmeconema neotropicum n. g., n. sp., a new tetradonematid nematode parasitising South American populations of Cephalotes atratus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with the discovery of an apparent parasite-induced host morph

@article{Poinar2008MyrmeconemaNN,
  title={Myrmeconema neotropicum n. g., n. sp., a new tetradonematid nematode parasitising South American populations of Cephalotes atratus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with the discovery of an apparent parasite-induced host morph},
  author={George Poinar and Stephen P. Yanoviak},
  journal={Systematic Parasitology},
  year={2008},
  volume={69},
  pages={145-153}
}
A new genus and species of tetradonematid nematode, Myrmeconema neotropicum n. g., n. sp., is described from larval, pupal and adult stages of Cephalotes atratus L. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Peru and Panama. [] Key Result Diagnostic characters of the new genus include: males and females subequal in size; cuticle with minute annulations; six cephalic papillae; stylet present in all stages; stichocytes absent; trophosome degenerate; three penetration glands; gonads paired and opposite; vulva in mid-body…

Exoskeletal Thinning in Cephalotes atratus Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Parasitized by Myrmeconema neotropicum (Nematoda: Tetradonematidae)

It is concluded that parasite-induced thinning of the exoskeleton is associated with the red color of the gaster, and other mechanisms, including translocation or leaching of melanin may operate in concert with thinning to effect the color change.

Preliminary Assessment of Metabolic Costs of the Nematode Myrmeconema neotropicum on its Host, the Tropical Ant Cephalotes atratus

A metabolic currency is used to measure, in vivo, the energetic costs of parasitism, and they shed light on the complex co-evolutionary relationship between host and parasite.

The Geographic Distribution of Parasite-Induced Fruit Mimicry in Cephalotes atratus (Formicidae: Myrmicinae)

The broad distribution of these data points suggests that M. neotropicum infects C. atratus throughout its geographic range, although possible disturbance effects and specific habitat associations of the interaction remain unknown.

Nematode infection as significant source of unjustified taxonomic descriptions in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

Observations made using noninvasive X-ray microtomography are provided, which provides direct evidence of the presence of mermithid nematodes in the gaster of certain type specimens, demonstrating that two of the three once-only Myrmica taxa were described on the basis of mersmithogenic phenotypes.

Nematode Parasites and Associates of Ants: Past and Present

Fossils of mermithids, tetradonematids, allantonem atids, and diplogastrids associated with ants show the evolutionary history of these relationships, some of which date back to the Eocene (40 mya).

Among the shapeshifters: parasite-induced morphologies in ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) and their relevance within the EcoEvoDevo framework

By assessing case studies of parasites causing morphological changes in their ant hosts, from the eighteenth century to current research, a first overview of relevant host and parasite taxa is presented and hypotheses about the underlying developmental and evolutionary mechanisms are discussed.

The ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and their parasites: effects of parasitic manipulations and host responses on ant behavioral ecology

This work highlights the parallels that can be found across parasite-ant symbioses that result in manipulated behaviors, such as summiting, phototaxis, substrate biting, and wandering, and points out the many present knowledge gaps that could be filled by efforts ranging from novel parasite discovery, to more detailed behavioral observations and next-generation sequencing to start uncovering mechanisms.

Bold, Sedentary Fathead Minnows Have More Parasites.

A link between metacercarial intensity and behavior in fathead minnows is reported and it is found that roaming distance by free-living minnOWS over 24 h was negatively correlated with parasite intensity, and boldness in an open field test was positively correlated with parasites intensity.

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