Myrmeconema neotropicum n. g., n. sp., a new tetradonematid nematode parasitising South American populations of Cephalotes atratus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with the discovery of an apparent parasite-induced host morph

  title={Myrmeconema neotropicum n. g., n. sp., a new tetradonematid nematode parasitising South American populations of Cephalotes atratus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with the discovery of an apparent parasite-induced host morph},
  author={George Poinar and Stephen P. Yanoviak},
  journal={Systematic Parasitology},
A new genus and species of tetradonematid nematode, Myrmeconema neotropicum n. g., n. sp., is described from larval, pupal and adult stages of Cephalotes atratus L. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Peru and Panama. [] Key Result Diagnostic characters of the new genus include: males and females subequal in size; cuticle with minute annulations; six cephalic papillae; stylet present in all stages; stichocytes absent; trophosome degenerate; three penetration glands; gonads paired and opposite; vulva in mid-body…

Exoskeletal Thinning in Cephalotes atratus Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Parasitized by Myrmeconema neotropicum (Nematoda: Tetradonematidae)

It is concluded that parasite-induced thinning of the exoskeleton is associated with the red color of the gaster, and other mechanisms, including translocation or leaching of melanin may operate in concert with thinning to effect the color change.

Preliminary Assessment of Metabolic Costs of the Nematode Myrmeconema neotropicum on its Host, the Tropical Ant Cephalotes atratus

A metabolic currency is used to measure, in vivo, the energetic costs of parasitism, and they shed light on the complex co-evolutionary relationship between host and parasite.

The Geographic Distribution of Parasite-Induced Fruit Mimicry in Cephalotes atratus (Formicidae: Myrmicinae)

The broad distribution of these data points suggests that M. neotropicum infects C. atratus throughout its geographic range, although possible disturbance effects and specific habitat associations of the interaction remain unknown.

Nematode infection as significant source of unjustified taxonomic descriptions in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

Observations made using noninvasive X-ray microtomography are provided, which provides direct evidence of the presence of mermithid nematodes in the gaster of certain type specimens, demonstrating that two of the three once-only Myrmica taxa were described on the basis of mersmithogenic phenotypes.

Nematode Parasites and Associates of Ants: Past and Present

Fossils of mermithids, tetradonematids, allantonem atids, and diplogastrids associated with ants show the evolutionary history of these relationships, some of which date back to the Eocene (40 mya).

Among the shapeshifters: parasite-induced morphologies in ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) and their relevance within the EcoEvoDevo framework

By assessing case studies of parasites causing morphological changes in their ant hosts, from the eighteenth century to current research, a first overview of relevant host and parasite taxa is presented and hypotheses about the underlying developmental and evolutionary mechanisms are discussed.

The ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and their parasites: effects of parasitic manipulations and host responses on ant behavioral ecology

This work highlights the parallels that can be found across parasite-ant symbioses that result in manipulated behaviors, such as summiting, phototaxis, substrate biting, and wandering, and points out the many present knowledge gaps that could be filled by efforts ranging from novel parasite discovery, to more detailed behavioral observations and next-generation sequencing to start uncovering mechanisms.

Bold, Sedentary Fathead Minnows Have More Parasites.

A link between metacercarial intensity and behavior in fathead minnows is reported and it is found that roaming distance by free-living minnOWS over 24 h was negatively correlated with parasite intensity, and boldness in an open field test was positively correlated with parasites intensity.



Formicitylenchus oregonensis n. g., n. sp. (Allantonematidae: Nematoda), the first tylenchid parasite of ants, with a review of nematodes described from ants

The first tylenchid parasite of ants, Formicitylenchus oregonensis n. g., n. sp., is described from a queen carpenter ant Camponotus vicinus Mayr in Western Oregon, USA. The new genus is

Biology and Redescription of Pheromermis Pachysoma (V. Linstow) N. Gen., N. Comb. (Nematoda: Mermithidae), a Parasite of Yellowjackets (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

The genus, Pheromermis, is characterized by the presence of four submedian cephalic papillae; large anteriorly placed cup-shaped amphids; an S-shaped vagina not bent in a transverse plane to the body; six hypodermal cords; paired, short, separate spicules; cuticle with cross fibers; and eggs lacking processes.

Corethrellonema grandispiculosum n. gen., n. sp. and Aproctonema chapmani n. sp. (Nematoda: Tetradonematidae), Parasites of the Dipterous Insect Genera, Corethrella and Culicoides in Louisiana.

Two new nematodes of the family Tetradonematidae, parasitic in aquatic dipterous insects in Louisiana, are presented and the biology and life histories show that the adults occur in the last larval instar of the insect host.

Didilia ooglypta n.gen., n.sp. ( Tetradonematidae : Mermithoidea : Nematoda ), a parasite of phlebotomine sandflies in Afghanistan

Summary - A new tetradonematid nematode in a laboratory colony of Phlebotomus papatasi from Afghanistan is described and named Didilia ooglypt.a n.g., n. sp. This genus differs from related ones by

Recent and fossil nematode parasites (Nematoda: Mermithidae) of neotropical ants.

Bispiculum inaequale n. gen. & sp. (Nematoda: Tetradonematidae) from New Zealand wood-boring beetles (Curculionidae: Platypodinae )

A monotypic new genus, Bispiculum, is erected for B. inaequale n.sp.

Allomermis solenopsi n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) parasitising the fire ant Solenopsi s invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Argentina

Diagnostic characters of the new species include stiff and erect processes on the surface of the mature egg, small female amphids, extension of the latero-medial rows of male genital papillae beyond the middle rows, an obliquely truncate spicule tip and a ventrally swollen male terminus.

Etude du parasitisme des simulies (Diptera : Simuliidae) par des Mermithidae (Nematoda) en Afrique de l'ouest. IV : Description de Isomermis lairdi, n.sp., parasite de Simulium damnosum

A new species of mermithid nematode, Isomermis lairdi, found parasitizing blackflies in the Ivory Coast, West Africa, and the first of the genus is described.

On the morphology of Mermithonema entomophilum n.g., n.sp., a nematode parasite of the fly, Sepsis cynipsea L.

In the body cavity of a female specimen of the fly, Sepsis cynipsea L., (Diptera-Cyclorrhapha), caught at this Institute in August, 1930, the writer found eight adult nematode parasites; 3 females

Heleidomermis magnapapula n. sp. (Mermithidae : Nematoda) parasitizing Culicoides variipennis (Ceratopogonidae : Diptera) in California

SUMMARY Heleidomennis magnapupula n. sp. is described as a parasite of the biting midge, Culicoides variipennis (Coquillett) in southern California. The size and shape of the amphidial pouches and