Myocardial tagging by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance: evolution of techniques--pulse sequences, analysis algorithms, and applications
- El-Sayed H Ibrahim
- Journal of cardiovascular magnetic resonance…
PURPOSE To introduce a true three-dimensional (3D) tagging technique for the assessment of myocardial tissue motion. MATERIALS AND METHODS To generate a 3D tagging grid, a complementary spatial modulation of magnetization (CSPAMM) was applied in three spatial directions. Imaging was performed using a conventional fast 3D gradient-echo sequence. For automatic analysis of the 3D-CSPAMM data set, evaluation software, based on a 3D extension of the HARP technique, was used. RESULTS Successful application of the 3D-CSPAMM technique in healthy subjects allowed the accurate determination of quantitative 3D motion patterns in the human heart. CONCLUSION 3D-CSPAMM may contribute to the quantification of the local 3D myocardial motion pattern throughout the cardiac cycle.