Impaired cardiac and skeletal muscle bioenergetics in children, adolescents, and young adults with Barth syndrome
BACKGROUND In patients with heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy, cardiac energy metabolism is impaired, as indicated by a reduction of the myocardial phosphocreatine-to-ATP ratio, measured noninvasively by 31P-MR spectroscopy. The purpose of this study was to test whether the phosphocreatine-to-ATP ratio also offers prognostic information in terms of mortality prediction as well as how this index compares with well-known mortality predictors such as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) or New York Heart Association (NYHA) class. METHODS AND RESULTS Thirty-nine patients with dilated cardiomyopathy were followed up for 928+/-85 days (2.5 years). At study entry, LVEF and NYHA class were determined, and the cardiac phosphocreatine-to-ATP ratio was measured by localized 31P-MR spectroscopy of the anterior myocardium. During the study period, total mortality was 26%. Patients were divided into two groups, one with a normal phosphocreatine-to-ATP ratio (>1.60; mean+/-SE, 1.98+/-0.07; n=19; healthy volunteers: 1.94+/-0.11, n=30) and one with a reduced phosphocreatine-to-ATP ratio (<1.60; 1.30+/-0.05; n=20). At re-evaluation (mean, 2.5 years), 8 of 20 patients with reduced phosphocreatine-to-ATP ratios had died, all of cardiovascular causes (total and cardiovascular mortality, 40%). Of the 19 patients with normal phosphocreatine-to-ATP ratios, 2 had died (total mortality, 11%), one of cardiovascular causes (cardiovascular mortality, 5%). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significantly reduced total (P=.036) and cardiovascular (P=.016) mortality for patients with normal versus patients with low phosphocreatine-to-ATP ratios. A Cox model for multivariate analysis showed that the phosphocreatine-to-ATP ratio and NYHA class offered significant independent prognostic information on cardiovascular mortality. CONCLUSIONS The myocardial phosphocreatine-to-ATP ratio, measured noninvasively with 31P-MR spectroscopy, is a predictor of both total and cardiovascular mortality in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.