Myocardial infarction (MI) is a common clinical diagnosis, associated with significant morbidity and mortality, not only in the short term, but also years following the index event. A more complete understanding of the pathophysiology of MI has ushered the era of multipronged treatment approach, with a combination of goal-directed revascularization, a broad adjunctive pharmacological therapy and aggressive secondary prevention measures. The goals of this article are to review the basic pathophysiological processes, which lead up to a clinical diagnosis of MI, to highlight the essential elements of clinical presentation and to summarize the evidence for comprehensive therapy. Emphasis has been placed on the choice of primary reperfusion therapy for ST-elevation MI, on risk-stratification of patients with non-ST elevation MI, and on rationale behind the selection of anti-ischaemic and antithrombotic therapy. Finally, evidence-based approach to secondary prevention is outlined.