Myelodysplastic syndromes: A practical approach to diagnosis and treatment

  title={Myelodysplastic syndromes: A practical approach to diagnosis and treatment},
  author={Afsaneh Barzi and Mikkael A. Sekeres},
  journal={Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine},
  pages={37 - 44}
The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal bone marrow disorders that lead to underproduction of normal blood cells. The consequent cytopenias result in infections and bleeding complications. MDS transform to acute myeloid leukemia in one-third of patients. The number of diagnoses has exploded in the past decade as a result of increased recognition and understanding of the disease and the aging of the population. New therapies can extend life. MDS are now considered the most common form of… 
Treatment Options in Myelodysplastic Syndromes
Myelodysplastic syndromes are a heterogeneous group of clonal bone marrow disorders, which are considered to be cancers and have a tendency to transform into acute myeloid leukemia. MDS are
This work presents a review of literature about MDS with clinical, laboratory, molecular aspects and therapeutic possibilities, and divides patients with MDS in five subgroups, which allows differentiating them in terms of survival.
Review of therapeutic options and the management of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes
There is now clear evidence that appropriate supportive care and therapeutic intervention can improve progression-free and overall survival of MDS patients.
Revisiting use of growth factors in myelodysplastic syndromes.
G-CSF is an effective therapeutic option in MDS patients, and it should be considered for the management of refractory symptomatic cytopenias, and thrombopietic growth factors that are available or being developed as therapeutic modalities for this challenging disease are examined.
Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and prognosis of myelodysplastic syndromes.
A Primary Care Approach to Myelodysplastic Syndromes
An overview of the common manifestations, diagnostic approaches, and therapeutic modalities of MDS for PCPs, with a focus on when to suspect MDS, when a referral is appropriate, and how to provide appropriate supportive care for patients diagnosed with MDS is provided.
A Primary Care Approach to Myelodysplastic Syndromes Review
An overview of the common manifestations, diagnostic approaches, and therapeutic modalities of MDS for PCPs, with a focus on when to suspect MDS, when a referral is appropriate, and how to provide appropriate supportive care for patients diagnosed with MDS is provided.
Different Mechanisms of Drug Resistance in Myelodysplastic Syndromes and Acute Myeloid Leukemia
The present contribution represents a state-of-the-art review of available knowledge about myelodysplastic syndromes and suggests that resistance to chemotherapy is a serious obstacle to the successful treatment of overall malignancies, including AML and MDS.
Rare Case of Multiple Lineage Dysplasia Myelodysplastic Syndrome Presenting with Only Anemia: A Case Report
This case showed that there could be discrepancy between clinical manifestations of the cytopenia with bone marrow dysplasia, which highlighted the importance of conducting bone marrow examination to properly classify MDS type.
Original article Azacitidine access program for Belgian patients with myelodysplastic syndromes, acute myeloid leukemia or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia
The Vidaza Access Program and its application to an initial 175 patients are described and individual medical dossiers were reviewed for completeness to facilitate patient access to treatment in Belgium.


Guidelines for the diagnosis and therapy of adult myelodysplastic syndromes
The precise relationship between these pathological processes remains uncertain but has important implications for the design of new therapeutic strategies targeting either augmented apoptosis or acute myeloid leukaemia (AML).
Recent advances in low- and intermediate-1-risk myelodysplastic syndrome: developing a consensus for optimal therapy.
This clinical roundtable will discuss the optimal management of patients with each of these approved therapies, as well as the various classification systems used to differentiate MDS subtypes for treatment.
Myelodysplastic syndromes: more prevalent than we know.
The epidemiology, classification, and treatment options for MDS are reviewed and the disease can follow an indolent course or rapidly progress to acute myelogenous leukemia (AML).
Bone marrow transplant in myelodysplastic syndromes: new technologies, same questions.
  • S. Giralt
  • Medicine
    Current hematology reports
  • 2004
Novel transplant regimens, availability of alternative donors, and busulfan targeting promises to increase transplant applicability and reduce nonrelapse mortality rates and new agents being developed for MDS may have a potential impact on transplant outcomes.
Myelodysplastic syndromes: diagnosis and staging.
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) represent a heterogeneous group of hematologic disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and an increased risk of developing acute myelogenous leukemia
Predicting survival and leukemic evolution in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome.
The impressive heterogeneity of the natural history of MDS, ranging from indolent condi tions with near normal life expectancy to forms rapidly progressing to leukemia, complicates clinical
Epidemiology, classification and prognosis of adults and children with myelodysplastic syndromes
A simple classification scheme based on morphological features and conforming with the WHO suggestions was proposed, and the dysplastic prodrome of acute myeloid leukemia in Down syndrome is classified within myeloids leukemia in down syndrome and excluded from the population-based studies of MDS.
Antithymocyte Globulin for Treatment of the Bone Marrow Failure Associated with Myelodysplastic Syndromes
This prospective case series found that one third of 61 patients with red blood cell transfusion-dependent myelodysplastic syndrome became transfusion independent within 8 months of a 4-day course of intravenous antithymocyte globulin.
Characteristics of US patients with myelodysplastic syndromes: results of six cross-sectional physician surveys.
MDS patients in the United States have substantial transfusion needs, and use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and are seldom considered for bone marrow transplantation or clinical trials.
The relationship of patient age to the pathobiology of the clonal myeloid diseases.
In older patients, diseases requiring cytotoxic treatment are more difficult and less successful to manage because comorbid conditions and poor performance status are more prevalent, decreasing the tolerance to therapy and increasing the frequency of side effects.