The antiozonant ethylene diurea is proven to prevent growth reductions in forest trees induced by ozone. The community of mycorrhizal fungi could be useful indicator of environmental stress. In this study, response of mycorrhizal fungi and fine roots to a 4-year exposure to ambient ozone and treatment with antiozonant was investigated in ozone-sensitive poplar clone under field conditions. The community of ectomycorrhizal fungi and root length colonization with ectomycorrhizal, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and root endophytic fungi was analyzed in antiozonant-treated poplar plants and in poplar plants irrigated with water. In general, plants protected by antiozonant showed higher total number of fine roots, number of ectomycorrhizal types, Shannon–Weaver diversity index, and Species richness index compared to the plants treated with water. The ectomycorrhizal community shifted from contact exploration type in the trees irrigated with water to short-distance exploration type in ethylene diurea-treated trees. Ozone protectant may beneficially affect the belowground community of mycorrhizal fungi colonizing roots of ozone-sensitive poplar clone.