Mycobiota in gastrointestinal diseases

  title={Mycobiota in gastrointestinal diseases},
  author={Pranab K. Mukherjee and Boualem Sendid and Gautier Hoarau and J F Colombel and Daniel Poulain and Mahmoud A. Ghannoum},
  journal={Nature Reviews Gastroenterology \&Hepatology},
New insights gained through the use of state-of-the-art technologies, including next-generation sequencing, are starting to reveal that the association between the gastrointestinal tract and the resident mycobiota (fungal community) is complex and multifaceted, in which fungi are active participants influencing health and disease. Characterizing the human mycobiome (the fungi and their genome) in healthy individuals showed that the gastrointestinal tract contains 66 fungal genera and 184 fungal… 

The Role of the Mycobiota in the Gut-Liver Axis

This chapter lays out currently proposed mechanisms through which disturbance of host-fungal homeostasis can lead to fungal-related diseases in general as well as liver diseases in particular.

The gut mycobiota: insights into analysis, environmental interactions and role in gastrointestinal diseases

This young research area requires standardization of techniques and bioinformatic analysis, as well as complete, curated databases, to reach a level of insight similar to that of the bacterial microbiota.

Dysbiosis signature of mycobiota in colon polyp and colorectal cancer

  • R. GaoC. Kong H. Qin
  • Biology, Medicine
    European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
  • 2017
A distinct fungal dysbiosis and an alteration in the fungal network are uncovered, which could play important roles in polyp and colorectal cancer pathogenesis.

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This study demonstrates the distinct colonization dynamics between fungi and bacteria in the GI tract and feces of piglets directly following weaning and the potential interactions of these microbes in the porcine gut ecosystem.

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In this review, the current status of gut mycobiome in health, early life, and different diseases including inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer, and metabolic diseases were summarized.

Effect of Mycobiome Diet on Gut Fungal and Bacterial Communities of Healthy Adults

The data showed that adhering to the mycobiome diet for 4 weeks led to positive shifts in fungal and bacterial microbiome communities concurrently with positive improvement in GI symptoms and overall health.

Salivary mycobiome dysbiosis and its potential impact on bacteriome shifts and host immunity in oral lichen planus

The team concluded that fungal community imbalance could affect the bacterial community in the saliva and the host immunity in the mucous membrane, thereby constituting a direct or indirect cause of the development of OLP.



Yeasts: Neglected Pathogens

It has been revealed that the major oligomannose epitopes supporting ASCA are expressed by C. albicans in human tissues, suggesting that C.Albicans is the immunogen for ASCA.

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The presence of fungi in the oral cavity of patients with IBD may affect more frequent colonization of the colonic mucosa in the active phase of disease.

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In an endocrine stress model the authors found no yeasts in the duodenal juices of 7 subjects before and after stress situation, but a clear decrease of Yeast count in the faeces, indicating the formation of metabolic products by Candida is secondary to the whole of microbial fermentation in the human orointestinal tract.

Kingdom-Agnostic Metagenomics and the Importance of Complete Characterization of Enteric Microbial Communities

It is shown that bacteria are not the only complex and important microbes in the human intestine, and studies of associations between the microbiome and intestinal pathology should incorporate kingdom-agnostic approaches if to fully understand intestinal health and disease.

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This is the first study that identified the “basal mycobiome” of healthy individuals, and provides the basis for a detailed characterization of the oral myCobiome in health and disease.

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Diverse fungal species are part of the normal enteric microbiota, but diversity is increased and composition of the fungal communities varies in IBD.

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What is currently known about the makeup of fungal communities in the body and the features of the immune system that are particularly important for interacting with fungi at these sites are discussed.

Enterococcus faecalis Inhibits Hyphal Morphogenesis and Virulence of Candida albicans

A biologically relevant interaction between two clinically important microbes that could affect treatment strategies as well as impact the understanding of interkingdom signaling and sensing in the human-associated microbiome is demonstrated.