Mutualism in which ants must be present before plants produce food bodies

  title={Mutualism in which ants must be present before plants produce food bodies},
  author={Stephen J. Risch and Fred R. Rickson},
Certain interactions between ants and plants can be classified as mutualisms1–3, with benefit accruing to both members. The plant provides a source of energy, either as solid food or as nectar, and sometimes a domicile such as a hollow stem (or a stem capable of being made hollow by the ants) or hollow stipular thorns. The ants provide the plant with defence against herbivory and/or vine overgrowth. Whether the plant relies entirely or only in part on the ants for its defence, in relationships… CONTINUE READING

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