Mutual validation of GNSS height measurements and high-precision geometric-astronomical leveling

@article{Hirt2011MutualVO,
  title={Mutual validation of GNSS height measurements and high-precision geometric-astronomical leveling},
  author={C. Hirt and Martin Schmitz and Uwe Feldmann-Westendorff and Gerhard W{\"u}bbena and Cord-Hinrich Jahn and G{\"u}nter Seeber},
  journal={GPS Solutions},
  year={2011},
  volume={15},
  pages={149-159}
}
The method of geometric-astronomical leveling is presented as a suited technique for the validation of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) heights. In geometric-astronomical leveling, the ellipsoidal height differences are obtained by combining conventional spirit leveling and astronomical leveling. Astronomical leveling with recently developed digital zenith camera systems is capable of providing the geometry of equipotential surfaces of the gravity field accurate to a few 0.1 mm per km… CONTINUE READING

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