Mutual Reproductive Benefits Between a Wild Orchid, Bulbophyllum patens, and Bactrocera Fruit Flies via a Floral Synomone

@article{Tan2004MutualRB,
  title={Mutual Reproductive Benefits Between a Wild Orchid, Bulbophyllum patens, and Bactrocera Fruit Flies via a Floral Synomone},
  author={Keng-hong Tan and Ritsuo Nishida},
  journal={Journal of Chemical Ecology},
  year={2004},
  volume={26},
  pages={533-546}
}
The solitary flower of Bulbophyllum patens selectively attracts male fruit flies of several Bactrocera species with a specific fragrance in the rain forest of Malaysia. It temporarily traps flies between its hinged see-saw lip and column for pollination. The attractant component is zingerone [4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanone], a pungent essence of ginger. Zingerone has a structure resembling two major fruit fly attractants (methyl eugenol and raspberry ketone) and shows potency to… 
Floral Synomone of a Wild Orchid, Bulbophyllum cheiri, Lures Bactrocera Fruit Flies for Pollination
TLDR
In this orchid–fruit fly association, both organisms gain direct reproductive benefits: the orchid flower gets pollinated without having to offer nectar, while the fruit fly boosts its pheromone and defense system, as well as its sexual competitiveness by feeding on the ME produced by the flower.
Floral fragrances in two closely related fruit fly orchids, Bulbophyllum hortorum and B. macranthoides (Orchidaceae): assortments of phenylbutanoids to attract tephritid fruit fly males
TLDR
Chemical profiles of two closely related Bulbophyllum orchids are examined to see a relation between chemical profiles and phylogenetic classification in the related species, and molecular phylogenetic relationships among phenylpropanoid- or phenylbutanoid-producing or chids are analyzed.
Movements of floral parts and roles of the tooth on the column wall of Bulbophyllum praetervisum (Orchidaceae) flower in pollination by Dacini fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)
TLDR
Field observations show two previously unreported movements of floral parts – a) petals and medial sepal during daily closing and reopening of flowers, and b) the spring-loaded and hinged lip during removal and deposition of pollinia by a male fruit fly.
Synomone Or Kairomone? – Bulbophyllum Apertum Flower Releases Raspberry Ketone To Attract Bactrocera Fruit Flies
TLDR
Wild males of B. caudatus (most common visitors) captured on Bulbophyllum apertum flowers were found to sequester RK in their bodies as a potential pheromonal and allomonal ingredient, suggesting an unstable situation, where the orchid relies only on a particular pollinator species in the complex ecosystem where many RK-sensitive species inhabit.
Floral Phenylpropanoid Cocktail and Architecture of Bulbophyllum vinaceum Orchid in Attracting Fruit Flies for Pollination
TLDR
In this unique mutualistic association, both species receive direct reproductive benefits—the flower’s pollinarium is transported for cross pollination, and the fly is offered a bouquet of phenylpropanoids (synomone) that it consumes, converts, and/or sequesters as sex pheromonal components, thus enhancing sexual attraction and mating success.
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