Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution

  title={Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution},
  author={P. A. kni︠a︡zʹ Kropotkin}
the ruminants that we find a highly developed practice of mutual aid. The squirrels are individualist to a great extent. Each of them builds its own comfortable nest, and accumulates its own provision. Their inclinations are towards family life, and Brehm found that a family of squirrels is never so happy as when the two broods of the same year can join together with their parents in a remote corner of a forest. And yet they maintain social relations. The inhabitants of the separate nests… Expand
The Secret Social Lives of Microorganisms Like many organisms, microbes rely on both sociality and altruism to survive and flourish
A s I stood there in the sweltering attic of an English pub, I remember asking myself “Why do I do this?”My face was a few centimeters from an unusually large hornet’s nest, and things were about toExpand
The Evolution of Cooperation
This essay will try to show that symbiosis and cooperation have been responsible for all of the great upward steps in evolution, including the development of the first prokaryotes, the first eukaryotes), the first multi-cellular organisms, and the first cooperative groups of multi cellular organisms. Expand
Struggle or Mutual Aid: Jane Addams, Petr Kropotkin, and the Progressive Encounter with Social Darwinism
the pluralist Volume 5, Number 1 Spring 2010 : pp. 21–43 21 the year is 1901. Two minor celebrities from opposite corners of the globe share an evening meal in Chicago. Both are politicallyExpand
Evolutionary and Behavioural Aspects of Altruism in Animal Communities: Is There Room for Intelligence?
1. The Paradox of Altruism An individual animal can play different roles in communities in dependence of its sex, age, relatedness, rank, and last but not least, intelligence. An individual's path toExpand
Cooperation versus competition in nature and society: The contribution of Piotr Kropotkin to evolutionary theory
[from the introduction] Concepts usually have multiple lives, yet in their revival they occur in a changed context, due to the time passed or to their application within a different disciplinaryExpand
Major Hurdles for the Evolution of Sociality.
Here, concepts and theories in social evolution are synthesized and the evolution of helping is shaped by direct and indirect fitness options and helping is only altruism if it reduces the helper's direct fitness. Expand
The Comparative Evolutionary Biology of Social Behavior
CONCEPTS OF SOCIAL STRUCTURE FROM A COMPARATIVE VIEWPOINT Comparative sociology challenges us to think in truly comparative terms about social structures as alien to humans (or to each other) as, forExpand
The Evolution and Ecology of Cooperation - History and Concepts
This work provides a summary of the foundational theory, including Hamilton's rule, neighbor- modulated fitness, inclusive fitness, and levels of selection; discusses the classification and semantics of social behaviors; and gives a brief overview of the various mecha- nisms that have been invoked to explain cooperation. Expand
The three faces of ecological fitness.
  • K. Peacock
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Studies in history and philosophy of biological and biomedical sciences
  • 2011
This paper argues that fitness is most usefully understood as those properties of organisms that are explanatory of survival in the broadest sense, not merely descriptive of reproductive success.Expand
Mutual Aid and Animal Dispersion: An Historical Analysis of Alternatives to Darwin
  • M. Borrello
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Perspectives in biology and medicine
  • 2004
Petr Alekseyevich Kropotkin (1842-1921) and Vero Copner Wynne-Edwards (1906-1997) developed evolutionary theories that emphasized social groups and cooperation rather than the organism-level naturalExpand


The Rationalists of the Twelfth Ce ntury
  • his Monographies and Researches (Russian).
The work of H. Schurtz, devoted to the “age-classe s” and the secret men’s unions during the barbarian stases of civilization
  • Altersklassen und Männerverbände: eine Darstellung
  • 1902
Darwin’s Descent of Man , ch. iii. The Kozloff expedition of 1899–1901 have also had to sustain in Northern Thibet a similar fight
  • 1901
Le droit de La Vieille Ir ande
  • (also “Le Haut Nord”) in Études de droit international et de droit politique , by Prof. E. Nys, Bruxelles, 1896.
  • 1896
Fraternal assistance in necessity of whatever kind,” “hospitality towards s trangers, when passing through the town, as thus information may be obtained about matters which one may like to learn
  • and “obligation of offering comfort in case of debility” are among the obligations of the members ( Nineteenth Century, Nov. 1890, and Aug. 1892).
  • 1890
Notes on the Khevsoures
  • Zapiski of the Caucasian Geogr. Society, xiv. 1, Tiflis, 1890, p. 68. They also took the oath of not marrying girls from their own union, thus displaying a remarkable return to the old gentile r ul s.
  • 1890
Hansische Vereinbarungen über städtisc hes Gewerbe im XIV und XV Jahrhundert
  • Hansische Geschichtsblätter , Jahrgang 1886, p. 121. Schönberg’s Wirthschaftliche Bedeutung der Zünfte ; also, partly, Roscher.
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Sketches of the Judicial Practices of th e Mordovians
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Slave ry and Russian Slaves in Florence in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centurie s
  • n Izvestia of the Kieff University, 1885.
  • 1885