Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution

  title={Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution},
  author={P. A. kni︠a︡zʹ Kropotkin}
the ruminants that we find a highly developed practice of mutual aid. The squirrels are individualist to a great extent. Each of them builds its own comfortable nest, and accumulates its own provision. Their inclinations are towards family life, and Brehm found that a family of squirrels is never so happy as when the two broods of the same year can join together with their parents in a remote corner of a forest. And yet they maintain social relations. The inhabitants of the separate nests… 
The Secret Social Lives of Microorganisms Like many organisms, microbes rely on both sociality and altruism to survive and flourish
A s I stood there in the sweltering attic of an English pub, I remember asking myself “Why do I do this?”My face was a few centimeters from an unusually large hornet’s nest, and things were about to
Evolutionary and Behavioural Aspects of Altruism in Animal Communities: Is There Room for Intelligence?
1. The Paradox of Altruism An individual animal can play different roles in communities in dependence of its sex, age, relatedness, rank, and last but not least, intelligence. An individual's path to
Struggle or Mutual Aid: Jane Addams, Petr Kropotkin, and the Progressive Encounter with Social Darwinism
the pluralist Volume 5, Number 1 Spring 2010 : pp. 21–43 21 the year is 1901. Two minor celebrities from opposite corners of the globe share an evening meal in Chicago. Both are politically
Cooperation versus competition in nature and society: The contribution of Piotr Kropotkin to evolutionary theory
In 1902 Piotr Alekseevich Kropotkin published the seminal text Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution , proposing the principle of mutual support both as a law of nature and a factor of evolution.
Major Hurdles for the Evolution of Sociality.
Here, concepts and theories in social evolution are synthesized and the evolution of helping is shaped by direct and indirect fitness options and helping is only altruism if it reduces the helper's direct fitness.
The Comparative Evolutionary Biology of Social Behavior
Both models and data suggest that an exceedingly influential factor in higher vertebrate social evolution has been the flexibility afforded by the potential for starting fresh in each generation, with all the possibilities for exploitation of genetic and environmental diversity thus afforded.
The three faces of ecological fitness.
  • K. Peacock
  • Environmental Science
    Studies in history and philosophy of biological and biomedical sciences
  • 2011
Mutual Aid and Animal Dispersion: An Historical Analysis of Alternatives to Darwin
Petr Alekseyevich Kropotkin (1842-1921) and Vero Copner Wynne-Edwards (1906-1997) developed evolutionary theories that emphasized social groups and cooperation rather than the organism-level natural
The effect of parasitism on personality in a social insect
Toward a theory of genuine altruism in Homo sapiens


The Rationalists of the Twelfth Ce ntury
  • his Monographies and Researches (Russian).
The principal use of the acc umulation of personal wealth is for periodically distributing it.” He also mentions ( loc. cit. p. 31) “the destruction of property for the same purpose
  • (of maintaining equality).
Fraternal assistance in necessity of whatever kind,” “hospitality towards s trangers, when passing through the town, as thus information may be obtained about matters which one may like to learn
  • and “obligation of offering comfort in case of debility” are among the obligations of the members ( Nineteenth Century, Nov. 1890, and Aug. 1892).
  • 1890
In the Mountaineer Co mmunities of Kabardia
  • Vestnik Evropy, April, 1884. With the Shakhsevens of the Mugan St eppe, blood feuds always end by marriage between the two hostile sides (Markoff, in appendix to the Zapiski of the Caucasian Geogr. Soc. xiv. 1, 21).
  • 1884
It never happens that the Papua be untrue to his promise
  • Finsch says in Neuguinea und seine Bewohner, Bremen, 1865, p. 829.
  • 1865
Notes on the Zakataly District
  • same Zapiski, xiv. 1, p. 264. The “joint team” is as common among the Lezghines as it is amo ng the Ossetes.
Notes on the Khevsoures
  • Zapiski of the Caucasian Geogr. Society, xiv. 1, Tiflis, 1890, p. 68. They also took the oath of not marrying girls from their own union, thus displaying a remarkable return to the old gentile r ul s.
  • 1890
The Theory of Beneficency of Struggle for Life, being a Preface to various Treatises on Botanics, Zoology, and Human Li fe
  • by an Old Transformist.
What especial ly characterises such associations
  • A. Baudrillart remarks, “is that no sort of written agr eement is concluded. All is arranged in words. There was, however, not one single case of difficul ties having arisen between the parties.”