Mutations in the Pseudomonas syringae avrRpt2 gene that dissociate its virulence and avirulence activities lead to decreased efficiency in AvrRpt2-induced disappearance of RIN4.

@article{Lim2004MutationsIT,
  title={Mutations in the Pseudomonas syringae avrRpt2 gene that dissociate its virulence and avirulence activities lead to decreased efficiency in AvrRpt2-induced disappearance of RIN4.},
  author={Melisa T S Lim and Barbara N Kunkel},
  journal={Molecular plant-microbe interactions : MPMI},
  year={2004},
  volume={17 3},
  pages={
          313-21
        }
}
  • M. Lim, B. Kunkel
  • Published 2004
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Molecular plant-microbe interactions : MPMI
The avrRpt2 gene from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato exhibits avirulence activity on Arabidopsis expressing the resistance gene RPS2 but promotes bacterial virulence on susceptible rps2 Arabidopsis. To understand the functional relationship between the avirulence and virulence activities of avrRpt2, we analyzed a series of six avrRpt2 mutants deficient in eliciting the RPS2-dependent hypersensitive response. We show that the mutants are also severely impaired in triggering RSP2-dependent… Expand
The Pseudomonas syringae type III effector AvrRpt2 promotes virulence independently of RIN4, a predicted virulence target in Arabidopsis thaliana.
  • M. Lim, B. Kunkel
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology
  • 2004
TLDR
The results indicate that the virulence activity of AvrRpt2 in A. thaliana is likely to rely on the modification of host susceptibility factors other than, or in addition to, RIN4. Expand
AvrB mutants lose both virulence and avirulence activities on soybean and Arabidopsis
TLDR
The results suggest that soybean and Arabidopsis recognize AvrB in the same manner, and that AvRB enzymatic activity is required for its function as an avirulence and virulence effector on two different plant species. Expand
The Pseudomonas syringae avrRpt2 gene contributes to virulence on tomato.
  • M. Lim, B. Kunkel
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Molecular plant-microbe interactions : MPMI
  • 2005
TLDR
It is shown that a mutant derivative of JL1065 that carries a disruption in avrRpt2 is impaired in its ability to cause disease on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), indicating that avr rpt2 also acts as a virulence gene in its native strain on a natural host. Expand
The N-terminal region of Pseudomonas type III effector AvrPtoB elicits Pto-dependent immunity and has two distinct virulence determinants.
  • F. Xiao, P. He, +4 authors G. Martin
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology
  • 2007
TLDR
The N-terminal 307 amino acids of AvrPtoB were previously reported to interact with the Pto kinase, and it is shown that this region is sufficient for eliciting Pto/Prf-dependent immunity against P. s. Expand
A role for a flavin-containing mono-oxygenase in resistance against microbial pathogens in Arabidopsis.
TLDR
A T-DNA insertion into the FMO1 gene resulted in enhanced susceptibility to virulent Pseudomonas and Hyaloperonospora parasitica, suggesting that expression of the F MO1 gene is a hitherto undescribed component of the plant's resistance repertoire. Expand
Phylogenetic Characterization of Virulence and Resistance Phenotypes of Pseudomonas syringae
TLDR
A robust phylogenetic foundation is provided for the study of these important virulence-associated phenotypes in P. syringae host colonization and pathogenesis and suggests there is a cost associated with the production of multiple toxins. Expand
Identification and functional analysis of Arabidopsis proteins that interact with resistance gene product RPS2 in yeast
TLDR
The RPS2 interacting proteins identified in this screen are new targets for studies of plant defense signal transduction, including a calmodulin, a putative ankyrin/tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein, a protein with a nuclear localization domain, and a protein of unknown function. Expand
Investigating the role of downy mildew effectors in host resistance and susceptibility
TLDR
It is proposed that AtNAP1s are susceptibility factors for Hpa, specifically targeted by Hpa effectors HaRxL67 and HaRXL79 in order to promote susceptibility and maintain biotrophy. Expand
The Pseudomonas syringae Type III Effector AvrRpt2 Promotes Pathogen Virulence via Stimulating Arabidopsis Auxin/Indole Acetic Acid Protein Turnover1[C][W][OA]
TLDR
Promoting auxin response via modulating the stability of the key transcription repressors Aux/IAA is a mechanism used by the bacterial type III effector AvrRpt2 to promote pathogenicity. Expand
Advances in experimental methods for the elucidation of Pseudomonas syringae effector function with a focus on AvrPtoB.
TLDR
This article highlights how diverse approaches to probing the molecular basis of effectors have been applied to the study of one effector--AvrPtoB--a multifunctional protein with the ability to suppress both effector-triggered immunity and pathogen (or microbe)-associated molecular pattern-trIGgered immunity. Expand
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Arabidopsis mutations at the RPS2 locus result in loss of resistance to Pseudomonas syringae strains expressing the avirulence gene avrRpt2.
TLDR
Two Arabidopsis thaliana mutants that fail to mount a hypersensitive defense response (HR) when infiltrated with phytopathogenic Pseudomonas strains carrying the avirulence (avr) gene avrRpt2 are isolated and it is shown that RPS2 is required for the elicitation of an HR. Expand
A cluster of mutations disrupt the avirulence but not the virulence function of AvrPto.
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It is reported that avrPto enhances the virulence of P. syringae pv. Expand
The Pseudomonas syringae avrRpt2 gene product promotes pathogen virulence from inside plant cells.
TLDR
It is found that tomato strain PstDC3000 expressing avrRpt2 grew to significantly higher levels and often resulted in the formation of more severe disease symptoms in ecotype No-0 plants carrying a mutant RPS2 allele, as well as in two Col-0 mutant lines, cpr5 rps2 and coil rPS2, that exhibit enhanced resistance. Expand
Mutational analysis of the Arabidopsis RPS2 disease resistance gene and the corresponding pseudomonas syringae avrRpt2 avirulence gene.
TLDR
Ten novel rps2 alleles characterized with mutations in the NBS and the LRR code for point mutations in motifs that are conserved among NBS-LRR resistance genes, including the third LRR, which suggests the importance of these motifs for resistance gene function. Expand
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TLDR
A chimeric protein composed of the N terminus of the heterologousAvrRpml effector and the C-terminal effector region of AvrRpt2 was delivered to plant cells, which indicates that the N-terminale region can direct secretion and translocation during an infection, which supports the view that Avr proteins have a modular design. Expand
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TLDR
Genetic analysis indicated that in each of the four rps mutants, susceptibility was due to a single mutation mapping to the same locus on chromosome 4, suggesting that there is natural variation at the RPS2 locus among wild populations of Arabidopsis. Expand
Glucocorticoid-inducible expression of a bacterial avirulence gene in transgenic Arabidopsis induces hypersensitive cell death.
TLDR
Transgenic RPS2 and rps2 plants that contain the glucocorticoid-inducible avrRpt2 gene will provide a powerful new tool for the genetic, physiological, biochemical, and molecular dissection of an avirulence gene-specified cell death response in both resistant and susceptible plants. Expand
Molecular analysis of avirulence gene avrRpt2 and identification of a putative regulatory sequence common to all known Pseudomonas syringae avirulence genes
TLDR
It is found that the avrRpt2 gene also has avirulence activity in P. syringae pathogens of Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), suggesting that disease resistance genes specific to AvrRPT2 are functionally conserved among diverse plant species. Expand
Molecular Evolution of Virulence in Natural Field Strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria
TLDR
Results show that avrBs2 is evolving to decrease detection by the Bs2 gene while at the same time maintaining its virulence function, consistent with the divergent selection pressures on avRBs2 exerted by theBs2 resistance gene. Expand
Arabidopsis RIN4 Is a Target of the Type III Virulence Effector AvrRpt2 and Modulates RPS2-Mediated Resistance
TLDR
RIN4 is a point of convergence for the activity of at least three unrelated P. syringae type III effectors, and is suggested to be the target of the AvrRpt2 virulence function, and that perturbation of RIN4 activates RPS2. Expand
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