Since the identification of the NPHS1 gene, which encodes nephrin, various investigators have demonstrated that the NPHS1 mutation is a frequent cause of congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS); it is found in 98% of Finnish children with this syndrome and in 39-80% of non-Finnish cases. In China, compound heterozygous mutations in the NPHS1 gene have been identified in two Chinese families with CNS. To our knowledge, however, whether or not NPHS1 is the causative gene in sporadic Chinese CNS cases has not been established. We identified a homozygous mutation of NPHS1, 3250insG (V1084fsX1095), in a Chinese child with sporadic CNS. This finding leads us to suggest that NPHS1 mutations are also present in sporadic Chinese CNS cases. This gives additional support for the necessity for genetic examination of mutations in the NPHS1 gene in Chinese children with sporadic CNS.