Mutations and Deregulation of Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR Cascades Which Alter Therapy Response

@inproceedings{McCubrey2012MutationsAD,
  title={Mutations and Deregulation of Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR Cascades Which Alter Therapy Response},
  author={James A McCubrey and Linda S. Steelman and William Harvey Chappell and Stephen L. Abrams and Giuseppe Montalto and Melchiorre Cervello and Ferdinando Nicoletti and Paolo Fagone and Grazia Malaponte and Maria Clorinda Mazzarino and Saverio Candido and Massimo Libra and Joerg Baesecke and Sanja Mijatovi{\'c} and Danijela Maksimovi{\'c}-Ivani{\'c} and Michele Milella and Agostino Tafuri and Lucio Cocco and Camilla Evangelisti and Francesca Chiarini and Alberto M Martelli},
  booktitle={Oncotarget},
  year={2012}
}
The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR cascades are often activated by genetic alterations in upstream signaling molecules such as receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK). Certain components of these pathways, RAS, NF1, BRAF, MEK1, DUSP5, PP2A, PIK3CA, PIK3R1, PIK3R4, PIK3R5, IRS4, AKT, NFKB1, MTOR, PTEN, TSC1, and TSC2 may also be activated/inactivated by mutations or epigenetic silencing. Upstream mutations in one signaling pathway or even in downstream components of the same pathway can alter… CONTINUE READING

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