Dissection of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum NifA+σ54 regulon, and identification of a ferredoxin gene (fdxN) for symbiotic nitrogen fixation
Upstream sequences of the Klebsiella pneumoniae nifH promoter were mutagenised and activation of the mutated promoters by the nif-specific transcriptional activator protein NifA examined in vivo. Of the sixteen mutations analysed, only those within the nifH upstream activator sequence (UAS), characterised by a TGT-N10-ACA motif, influenced nifH promoter activity. Mutations altering the two-fold rotational symmetry of the UAS or the spacing between the TGT and ACA motifs reduced promoter activity, consistent with the UAS functioning as a NifA binding site. The bases flanking the TGT-ACA motif of the UAS also appear to influence activation by NifA. Substituting the nifH UAS with a binding site for the transcriptional activator NtrC resulted in improved NtrC-dependent activation of the nifH promoter demonstrating that the activator specificity of the nifH promoter is dependent upon the presence of the appropriate upstream sequences to which the activator binds.