Muscular and metabolic costs of uphill backpacking: are hiking poles beneficial?

@article{Knight2000MuscularAM,
  title={Muscular and metabolic costs of uphill backpacking: are hiking poles beneficial?},
  author={Christopher A. Knight and Graham E. Caldwell},
  journal={Medicine and science in sports and exercise},
  year={2000},
  volume={32 12},
  pages={
          2093-101
        }
}
PURPOSE The purpose of the present study was to compare pole and no-pole conditions during uphill backpacking, which was simulated on an inclined treadmill with a moderately heavy (22.4 kg, 30% body mass) backpack. METHODS Physiological measurements of oxygen consumption, heart rate, and RPE were taken during 1 h of backpacking in each condition, along with joint kinematic and electromyographic comparisons from data collected during a third test session. RESULTS The results showed that… 

Exertion during uphill, level and downhill walking with and without hiking poles.

The results suggest that the use of the hiking poles had a significant influence on the respiratory and energetic responses only during downhill walking, and supplementary studies in the field are needed in order to confirm the original results obtained in downhill.

Effects of hiking pole inertia on energy and muscular costs during uphill walking.

Using poles and changing frequency have important effects on muscle recruitment, whereas the effects of mass were limited when considering poles available on the market.

The Effects of Hiking Poles on Performance and Physiological Variables During Mountain Climbing

Performance and physiological responses do not differ when hiking with and without poles on a 4-km mountain ascent, however the subjects reported informally that the poles reduced the lower back and lower extremity pain the day following the hike.

Effects of Backpack Load and Trekking Poles on Energy Expenditure During Field Track Walking

The results suggest that the use of trekking poles does not influence energy expenditure when walking without an additional load, but it can have an effect during backpack load walking, and indicates that the Use of Trekking poles may not be helpful to lower the exertion perceived by the subjects when walking with anAdditional load.

Exploring Muscle Activation during Nordic Walking: A Comparison between Conventional and Uphill Walking

Although the difference in extra energy expenditure between NW and W was smaller in the uphill walking condition, the increased upper body muscle involvement during exercising with NW may confer additional benefit compared to conventional walking also on uphill terrains.

The Effects of Hiking Pole Use on Physiological Variables and Rate of Perceived Exertion While Hiking Uphill

The results indicate that the use of hiking poles during uphill hiking increases the energy cost of hiking without increasing the perceived exertion in novice pole users.

THE EFFECTS OF BACKPACK LOADING STYLES ON ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND MOVEMENT IN THE SAGITTAL PLANE DURING TREADMILL WALKING

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of a non-secure loading style as compared to a secure loading style of a backpack.

The Effects of Hiking Poles and Steady Walking Time on Up-hill Walking

Seven healthy men volunteered for this experiment and lower extremity 4 muscles activity including rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, biceps femoris was recorded and assessed by using EMG and Heart rate and Rating of perceived exertion were recorded and analyzed.

The effect of different systems of carrying backpacks on muscle activity

Findings of this study clearly show the advantage of a counterbalance system for carrying the loads in students and mountain climbers by reducing muscle activity which is a considerable kinematic and ergonomic benefit of carrying load in such backpacks.

Trekking poles reduce exercise-induced muscle injury during mountain walking.

Trekking poles reduce RPE on mountain ascents, reduce indices of muscle damage, assist in maintaining muscle function in the days after a mountain trek, and reduce the potential for subsequent injury.
...

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