Muscles, exercise and obesity: skeletal muscle as a secretory organ

  title={Muscles, exercise and obesity: skeletal muscle as a secretory organ},
  author={Bente Klarlund Pedersen and Mark A. Febbraio},
  journal={Nature Reviews Endocrinology},
During the past decade, skeletal muscle has been identified as a secretory organ. Accordingly, we have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed and released by muscle fibres and exert either autocrine, paracrine or endocrine effects should be classified as myokines. The finding that the muscle secretome consists of several hundred secreted peptides provides a conceptual basis and a whole new paradigm for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs… 

Muscle as an Endocrine Organ

Exercise and Regulation of Adipokine and Myokine Production.

Muscle as a secretory organ.

This work has suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed, and released by muscle fibers and exert either autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine effects should be classified as "myokines," and found that several myokines exert their effects within the muscle itself.

Muscle–Organ Crosstalk: The Emerging Roles of Myokines

It is suggested that myokines may be useful biomarkers for monitoring exercise prescription for people with, for example, cancer, diabetes, or neurodegenerative diseases.

Myokines: The endocrine coupling of skeletal muscle and bone.

Crosstalk between adipokines and myokines in fat browning

Skeletal muscle is the largest organ determining whole‐body insulin sensitivity and metabolic homoeostasis. Adaptive changes of skeletal muscle in response to physical activity include adjustments in

Myokines in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes

The most recent findings on the role of myokines in the regulation of substrate metabolism and insulin sensitivity are summarized and a critical assessment of irisin and other myokine regarding their potential as therapeutic targets are provided.

Endocrine Crosstalk Between Skeletal Muscle and the Brain

The present review will discuss the current stage of knowledge regarding how exercise and the muscle secretome improve a broad range of brain functions related to vascularization, neuroplasticity, memory, sleep and mood.

Responses of Muscle Mitochondrial Function to Physical Activity: A Literature Review

It seems that expression of irisin and FNDC5 converts the white adipose into brown adipose resulting in increased energy consumption by the whole body hindering obesity and diabetes.

Impact of adipokines and myokines on fat browning

The present review focuses on the role of different myokines and adipokines in the regulation of fat browning, as well as in the potential cross-talk between AT and skeletal muscle, in order to control body weight, energy expenditure and thermogenesis.



Muscle as an endocrine organ: focus on muscle-derived interleukin-6.

This review focuses on the myokine IL-6, its regulation by exercise, its signaling pathways in skeletal muscle, and its role in metabolism in both health and disease.

Role of myokines in exercise and metabolism.

The present review focuses on muscle-derived cytokines, their regulation by exercise, and their possible roles in metabolism and skeletal muscle function and it discusses which cytokines should be classified as true myokines.

Adipokines, myokines and cardiovascular disease.

  • K. Walsh
  • Biology
    Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
  • 2009
A protocol to identify novel muscle-secreted proteins (myokines) that confer the phenotypic changes brought on by myogenic Akt induction has been devised and one of these newly discovered factors, referred to as follistatin-like 1, is able to promote revascularization in ischemic limbs and protect the heart from isChemic stress.

Muscular interleukin-6 and its role as an energy sensor.

  • B. Pedersen
  • Biology, Medicine
    Medicine and science in sports and exercise
  • 2012
The discovery of contracting muscle as a cytokine-producing organ opens for a whole new paradigm: if the endocrine function of the muscle is not stimulated through contractions, it will cause malfunction of several organs and tissues of the body.

Expression and function of myostatin in obesity, diabetes, and exercise adaptation.

The purpose of this review was to summarize the work to date on the expression and function of myostatin in obesity, diabetes, and exercise adaptation.

Skeletal muscle as an immunogenic organ.

The biological roles of exercise-induced cytokines: IL-6, IL-8, and IL-15.

  • A. NielsenB. Pedersen
  • Biology
    Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism = Physiologie appliquee, nutrition et metabolisme
  • 2007
Muscle-derived cytokines appear to have important roles in metabolism, and exercise plays a role in orchestrating the interplay between cytokines and metabolism.

IL-6 selectively stimulates fat metabolism in human skeletal muscle.

It is suggested that an acute increase in IL-6 at a normophysiological level selectively stimulates lipolysis in skeletal muscle, whereas adipose tissue is unaffected.

Interleukin-6 in acute exercise and training: what is the biological relevance?

Extended exercise involving a significant muscle mass in the contractile activity is necessary in order to produce a marked systemic IL-6 response, and exercise training may reduce basalIL-6 production as well as the magnitude of the acute exercise IL- 6 response by counteracting several potential stimuli of IL-8.