Muscle dysmorphia. An underrecognized form of body dysmorphic disorder.

  title={Muscle dysmorphia. An underrecognized form of body dysmorphic disorder.},
  author={Harrison G Pope and Amanda J. Gruber and Precilla Y. L. Choi and Roberto Olivardia and Katharine A. Phillips},
  volume={38 6},
Muscle Dysmorphia: A Critical Review of the Proposed Criteria
  • B. Chung
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Perspectives in biology and medicine
  • 2001
Both the historical and clinical aspects of this syndrome are more consistent with its classification as an obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Body dysmorphic disorder in men
D diagnostic features, clinical presentation and screening tools for BDD, especially males, are discussed and Recommendations for appropriate treatment and support are supplied.
Revisiting the Diagnostic Criteria for Muscle Dysmorphia
Muscle dysmorphia: A South African sample
Use of the proposed diagnostic criteria for muscle dysmorphia indicated that this is a common and relevant entity, and its conceptualization as a subtype of BDD seems valid.
Muscle dysmorphia.
Sometimes referred to as “bigorexia” or “reverse anorexia,” muscle dysmorphia is a subtype of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), in which people, mostly males, are obsessed with the size of their
The Classification of Muscle Dysmorphia
This study investigated relationships among symptoms of MD and variables most relevant to a DSM classification of men who lift weights regularly and found no relationship was found between MD and a measure of somatoform disorder, suggesting that MD is an OCD spectrum disorder, rather than a somatoforms disorder.
The drive for muscle leanness: A complex case with features of muscle dysmorphia and eating disorder not otherwise specified
The case is of a 20-year-old man who describes a history of muscle dysmorphia in which the nature of the body image concern is related to leanness (i.e., muscularity in the absence of body fat), as opposed to increasing muscle mass, which is how muscle Dysmorphia has typically been characterized in the literature.
Perspectives on Muscle Dysmorphia
Muscle dysmorphia as a proposed psychiatric disorder has garnered attention in the general media and within the academic and scientific communities. Yet, while several models and theories have been
Sizing it up: A Systematic Review of the Nosology of Muscle Dysmorphia
A significant body of literature describes disorders characterized by a disturbance of body image, affecting both men and women to varying degrees. One such disorder, muscle dysmorphia (MD) has
Muscle Dysmorphia: An Overview of Clinical Features and Treatment Options
An overview of the clinical features of muscle dysmorphia is provided, drawing particular attention to the preoccupation, functional impairment and psychiatric comorbidity associated with the disorder.


Body dysmorphic disorder: 30 cases of imagined ugliness.
This often secret, chronic disorder can cause considerable distress and impairment, may be related to obsessive-compulsive disorder or mood disorder, and may respond to serotonin reuptake-blocking antidepressants.
Psychiatric and medical effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid use. A controlled study of 160 athletes.
  • H. Pope, D. Katz
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Archives of general psychiatry
  • 1994
Major mood disturbances associated with anabolic-androgenic steroids may represent an important public health problem for athletes using steroids and sometimes for the victims of their irritability and aggression.
Affective spectrum disorder: does antidepressant response identify a family of disorders with a common pathophysiology?
A treatment-response model based on four classes of antidepressants identified eight disorders that may share a pathophysiologic abnormality: major depression, bulimia, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity, cataplexy, migraine, and irritable bowel syndrome.
Comparison of eating disorder patients with and without compulsive exercising.
There was a trend for a significantly higher frequency of compulsive exercising in the patients with anorexia nervosa than those with bulimia nervosa, and 3 CE patients with a DSM-III-R diagnosis of eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) were included for comparison with non-CEs on a number of variables.
Risk factors for anabolic-androgenic steroid use in men.
Symptoms and correlates of anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence.
The data support the notion that AASs are addicting, and suggest that dissatisfaction with body size may lead to dependent patterns of use.
Body image and steroid use in male bodybuilders.
The results suggest that male bodybuilders are at risk for body image disturbance and the associated psychological characteristics that have been commonly reported among eating disorder patients and appear to predict steroid use in this group of males.
Is running an analogue of anorexia nervosa? An empirical study of obligatory running and anorexia nervosa.
It is concluded that obligatory runners do not suffer from the same degree of psychopathology as do patients with anorexia nervosa.
Bulimia nervosa in Austria and the United States: a controlled cross-cultural study.
Bulimic women in both countries proved significantly distinguishable from controls on eating behavior, attitudes toward body shape and weight, lifetime prevalence of major mood disorder, and a few variables regarding childhood experiences.