Muscle dysmorphia in male weightlifters: a case-control study.

  title={Muscle dysmorphia in male weightlifters: a case-control study.},
  author={Roberto Olivardia and Harrison G Pope and J I Hudson},
  journal={The American journal of psychiatry},
  volume={157 8},
OBJECTIVE Muscle dysmorphia is a form of body dysmorphic disorder in which individuals develop a pathological preoccupation with their muscularity. METHOD The authors interviewed 24 men with muscle dysmorphia and 30 normal comparison weightlifters, recruited from gymnasiums in the Boston area, using a battery of demographic, psychiatric, and physical measures. RESULTS The men with muscle dysmorphia differed significantly from the normal comparison weightlifters on numerous measures… 
Symptom characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity among males with muscle dysmorphia.
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Muscle Dysmorphia: A New Form of Eating Disorder?
Abstract Muscle dysmorphia (MD) has been put forth as a variation of the eating disorders anorexia and bulimia nervosa. In this case, individuals believe that their physiques are too small (i.e.,
Muscle dysmorfia: a comparative analysis between the antropometric criteria and a psychometric scale
Results indicate that the B/P index can be used as a valid antropometric criteria to help exercise professionals suspect of MD in individuals with B/p > 1 and reffer them to especialized professionals for diagnose and treatment.
Symptoms of Muscle Dysmorphia, Body Dysmorphic Disorder, and Eating Disorders in a Nonclinical Population of Adult Male Weightlifters in Australia
Analysis of data from a nonclinical population of adult male weightlifters in Australia found that adult males who are working out with weights may be at increased risk of having MD, BDD, and eating disorders.
Muscle dysmorphia in Hungarian non-competitive male bodybuilders
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  • Medicine, Psychology
    Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity
  • 2012
Examination of non-competitive male bodybuilders in a Hungarian sample found Muscle dysmorphia was associated with current bodybuilding activity, higher ideal body weight and eating disorder characteristics, and current selfreported steroid users displayed higher tendency for MD symptoms than self-reported steroid non-users.
Testing a Comprehensive Model of Muscle Dysmorphia Symptomatology in a Nonclinical Sample of Men
As increasing emphases are placed on the importance of a muscular male physique in Westernized culture, more men are experiencing eating, exercise, and body image (EEBI) disturbances.
Psychometric evaluation of the muscle dysmorphic disorder inventory (MDDI) among gender-expansive people
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The results suggest that male bodybuilders are at risk for body image disturbance and the associated psychological characteristics that have been commonly reported among eating disorder patients and appear to predict steroid use in this group of males.
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    Archives of general psychiatry
  • 1994
Major mood disturbances associated with anabolic-androgenic steroids may represent an important public health problem for athletes using steroids and sometimes for the victims of their irritability and aggression.
Socio-cultural factors in the development of anorexia nervosa.
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Body image and eating disturbance in obligatory runners, obligatory weightlifters, and sedentary individuals
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A severity rating scale for body dysmorphic disorder: development, reliability, and validity of a modified version of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale.
The Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for Body Dysmorphic Disorder appears to be a reliable and valid measure of B DD severity and is a suitable outcome measure in treatment studies of BDD.