Tentacles are dexterous appendages that are often illustrated in comics and animated in movies; most famously in the tentacled beard of Davy Jones in the movie <i>Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest</i>. Each tentacle in Davy Jones's beard was animated by an articulated rigid skeleton [Criswell et al. 2006]. Real-world tentacles, however, do not have the luxury of an internal skeleton, and instead must generate movement solely with muscle tissue. Such "muscular hydrostats" use tissue incompressibility (muscle tissue is largely composed of incompressible fluid) as the mechanical support required to exert movement. For example, tentacle lengthening is achieved by the contraction of muscle fibers that are perpendicular to the elongation direction. This inward squeezing reduces a tentacle's circumference and increases its length to maintain overall tissue volume. The internal deformations needed to generate movement provide a visible set of secondary movements that enhance the lifelike nature of tentacles and are not captured by rigid tentacle simulation. Recent work has demonstrated muscle-driven animations of soft-bodies [Tan et al. 2012], here we extend this approach for anatomically-based models of tentacles that include helical muscle fibers for twisting movements. Animated with keyframe motion targets prescribed by an animator, the resulting simulations generate lifelike secondary tentacle deformations.
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