Muscle damage and inflammation during recovery from exercise.

@article{Peake2017MuscleDA,
  title={Muscle damage and inflammation during recovery from exercise.},
  author={Jonathan M Peake and Oliver Neubauer and Paul A Della Gatta and Kazunori Nosaka},
  journal={Journal of applied physiology},
  year={2017},
  volume={122 3},
  pages={
          559-570
        }
}
Unaccustomed exercise consisting of eccentric (i.e., lengthening) muscle contractions often results in muscle damage characterized by ultrastructural alterations in muscle tissue, clinical signs, and symptoms (e.g., reduced muscle strength and range of motion, increased muscle soreness and swelling, efflux of myocellular proteins). The time course of recovery following exercise-induced muscle damage depends on the extent of initial muscle damage, which in turn is influenced by the intensity and… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Pathophysiology of exercise-induced muscle damage and its structural, functional, metabolic, and clinical consequences.
TLDR
This review focuses on the current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying exercise-induced muscle damage, their dependence on genetic background, as well as their consequences at the structural, functional, metabolic, and clinical level.
(Whole-Body) Electromyostimulation, Muscle Damage, and Immune System: A Mini Review
TLDR
This short review of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) focuses on the possible immunological side effects of this aspiring training technology and will include data from other studies about the relation of exercise-induced muscle damage and immune regulation.
Hormonal responses following eccentric exercise in humans
TLDR
The significant hormonal responses observed in this study may indicate their involvement in the regenerative mechanisms following muscle damage, potentially as part of a regulatory network to support a normal adaptation process after muscle-damaging exercise.
Relationship between Eccentric-Exercise-Induced Loss in Muscle Function to Muscle Soreness and Tissue Hardness
TLDR
The results showed that a decrease in ROM was correlated to an increase in tissue hardness, whereas a increase in muscle strength was correlated in muscle soreness, suggesting that tissue hardness must be controlled for ROM loss, and Muscle soreness must becontrolled for muscle-strength loss.
Nutritional and Supplementation Strategies to Prevent and Attenuate Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage: a Brief Review
TLDR
The purpose of this review is to briefly and comprehensively summarize many of these strategies that have been shown to positively influence the recovery process after damaging exercise.
Sex-Based Differences in the Myogenic Response and Inflammatory Gene Expression Following Eccentric Contractions in Humans
TLDR
There are sex-based differences in the myogenic and inflammatory response, where females have a blunted SC andinflammatory response following unaccustomed eccentric exercise in males and females.
Systemic Responses of Inflammation-Related Factors Following Eccentric Exercise in Humans
TLDR
It is suggested that eccentric exercise might trigger a systemic, predominantly anti-inflammatory, acute cytokine response as part of the adaptation process to muscle damage, where IL-6 may be especially involved.
Expression of tissue remodelling, inflammation- and angiogenesis-related factors after eccentric exercise in humans.
TLDR
The early transcriptional upregulation of tissue remodelling, inflammation- and angiogenesis-related factors post eccentric exercise may indicate the acute intramuscular activation of these processes functionally related to muscle damage-induced adaptation.
Mineralocorticoid Receptor Signaling Contributes to Normal Muscle Repair After Acute Injury
TLDR
Data support that MR signaling contributes to the normal muscle repair process following acute injury, and MR antagonist treatment delays muscle fiber growth, so temporary discontinuation of these drugs after a severe muscle injury could be considered.
Exercise-induced muscle damage: mechanism, assessment and nutritional factors to accelerate recovery
TLDR
This present review aims to examine EIMD emanating from both endurance exercise and resistance exercise training in recreational and competitive athletes and shed light on nutritional strategies that can enhance and accelerate recovery following EIMd.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 136 REFERENCES
Re-Evaluation of Sarcolemma Injury and Muscle Swelling in Human Skeletal Muscles after Eccentric Exercise
TLDR
It is concluded that fibre swelling in the soleus muscle is not directly associated with the symptom of DOMS, and the prevailing hypothesis that eccentric exercise causes an initial sarcolemma injury which leads to subsequent inflammation after eccentric exercise is not supported.
Cellular adaptation to repeated eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage.
TLDR
Adaptions to eccentric exercise are associated with attenuated serum CK activity and, potentially, an increase in the activity of the ubiquitin proteosome proteolytic pathway.
Gender differences in muscle inflammation after eccentric exercise.
TLDR
It is concluded that muscle damage is similar between genders, yet the inflammatory response is attenuated in women vs. men, and exercise may stimulate the expression of proteins involved in apoptosis in skeletal muscle.
Experimental human muscle damage: morphological changes in relation to other indices of damage.
TLDR
Mononuclear cell infiltration both between and within degenerating fibres was maximal well after the time of peak plasma creatine kinase and it is likely that in eccentrically exercised muscle infiltrating mononuclear cells act to scavenge cellular debris rather than to cause damage to the muscle.
Inflammation during skeletal muscle regeneration and tissue remodeling: application to exercise‐induced muscle damage management
TLDR
The question of early treatment aiming at blunting inflammation after exercise‐induced muscle injury is discussed and the importance of macrophages in skeletal muscle regeneration is discussed.
Skeletal Muscle Inflammation Following Repeated Bouts of Lengthening Contractions in Humans
TLDR
It is concluded that inflammation is not attenuated following a repeated bout of LC and that CD8+ T-cells may play a role in muscle adaptation following LC, and it appears that the muscle or the immune system becomes sensitized to an initial bout of damaging exercise such that inflammatory cell infiltration into the muscle is enhanced upon a repeated bouts of damaging Exercise.
Eccentric contractions leading to DOMS do not cause loss of desmin nor fibre necrosis in human muscle
TLDR
The data are in agreement with the recent findings that there is no inflammatory response in skeletal muscle following eccentric exercise in humans, and should stimulate the search for other mechanisms explaining the functional and structural alterations in human skeletal muscle after eccentric exercise.
Lengthening our perspective: Morphological, cellular, and molecular responses to eccentric exercise
TLDR
The utility of using eccentric training to improve muscle function in populations of healthy and aging individuals, as well as those living with neuromuscular disorders is explored.
Delayed onset muscle soreness: Involvement of neurotrophic factors
TLDR
This model has found that muscle fiber damage is not essential, although it is sufficient, for induction of DOMS, instead, NGF and GDNF produced by muscle fibers/satellite cells play crucial roles in DOMS.
Time course of leukocyte accumulation in human muscle after eccentric exercise.
TLDR
Halted recovery of muscle function was associated with local accumulation of leukocytes, whereas muscle soreness could not be explained by the presence ofLeukocytes.
...
...