Muscle activation patterns and motor anatomy of Anna's hummingbirds Calypte anna and zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata.

@article{Donovan2013MuscleAP,
  title={Muscle activation patterns and motor anatomy of Anna's hummingbirds Calypte anna and zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata.},
  author={Edward Robert Donovan and Brooke K. Keeney and Eric Kung and Sirish Makan and J. Martin Wild and Douglas L Altshuler},
  journal={Physiological and biochemical zoology : PBZ},
  year={2013},
  volume={86 1},
  pages={27-46}
}
Flying animals exhibit profound transformations in anatomy, physiology, and neural architecture. Although much is known about adaptations in the avian skeleton and musculature, less is known about neuroanatomy and motor unit integration for bird flight. Hummingbirds are among the most maneuverable and specialized of vertebrate fliers, and two unusual neuromuscular features have been previously reported: (1) the pectoralis major has a unique distribution pattern of motor end plates (MEPs… CONTINUE READING