Muscle Carnosine Metabolism and β-Alanine Supplementation in Relation to Exercise and Training

@article{Derave2010MuscleCM,
  title={Muscle Carnosine Metabolism and $\beta$-Alanine Supplementation in Relation to Exercise and Training},
  author={Wim Derave and Inge Everaert and Sam Beeckman and Audrey Baguet},
  journal={Sports Medicine},
  year={2010},
  volume={40},
  pages={247-263}
}
Carnosine is a dipeptide with a high concentration in mammalian skeletal muscle. It is synthesized by carnosine synthase from the amino acids L-histidine and β-alanine, of which the latter is the rate-limiting precursor, and degraded by carnosinase. Recent studies have shown that the chronic oral ingestion of β-alanine can substantially elevate (up to 80%) the carnosine content of human skeletal muscle. Interestingly, muscle carnosine loading leads to improved performance in high-intensity… 

Important role of muscle carnosine in rowing performance.

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Exercise alters and β-alanine combined with exercise augments histidyl dipeptide levels and scavenges lipid peroxidation products in human skeletal muscle.

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Ergogenic Effects of β-Alanine and Carnosine: Proposed Future Research to Quantify Their Efficacy

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Acute carnosine and β-alanine supplementation increases the compensated part of the ventilation vs work rate relationship during a ramp incremental cycle test in physically active men.

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The Acute Administration of Carnosine and Beta-Alanine Does Not Improve Running Anaerobic Performance and has No Effect on the Metabolic Response to Exercise

Investigation of the acute effects of carnosine ingestion on anaerobic intermittent per- formance and the responses of blood insulin, glucose, bicarbonate and lactate concentrations to exercise found no significant difference and it is not clear whether these results may be attributed to an insufficient dose of Carnivaline or to a lack of acute effect per se.
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