Muscle Carnosine Metabolism and β-Alanine Supplementation in Relation to Exercise and Training

  title={Muscle Carnosine Metabolism and $\beta$-Alanine Supplementation in Relation to Exercise and Training},
  author={Wim Derave and Inge Everaert and Sam Beeckman and Audrey Baguet},
  journal={Sports Medicine},
Carnosine is a dipeptide with a high concentration in mammalian skeletal muscle. It is synthesized by carnosine synthase from the amino acids L-histidine and β-alanine, of which the latter is the rate-limiting precursor, and degraded by carnosinase. Recent studies have shown that the chronic oral ingestion of β-alanine can substantially elevate (up to 80%) the carnosine content of human skeletal muscle. Interestingly, muscle carnosine loading leads to improved performance in high-intensity… 

Important role of muscle carnosine in rowing performance.

It can be concluded that the positive correlation between baseline muscle carnosine levels and rowing performance and thepositive correlation between changes in muscle Carnosine and performance improvement suggest that muscle carnOSine is a new determinant of roowing performance.

Exercise alters and β-alanine combined with exercise augments histidyl dipeptide levels and scavenges lipid peroxidation products in human skeletal muscle.

Results suggest that carnosine levels and ATPGD1 expression fluctuates with different phases of training, which could facilitate the detoxification of lipid peroxidation products in the human skeletal muscle.

Muscle carnosine loading by beta-alanine supplementation is more pronounced in trained vs. untrained muscles.

It is shown that carnosine content can be reliably measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy by (1)H-MRS in deltoid muscle, and carnOSine loading is equally effective in arm vs. leg muscles of nonathletes and more pronounced in trained vs. untrained muscles.

Does low serum carnosinase activity favor high-intensity exercise capacity?

Explosive athletes have lower serum CN1 activity and content compared with untrained controls, possibly resulting from genetic selection.

Effect of beta-alanine and carnosine supplementation on muscle contractility in mice.

Comparable with humans, beta-alanine availability seems to be the rate-limiting step for synthesis of muscle histidine-containing dipeptides in mice, which moderately and muscle dependently affects excitation-contraction coupling and fatigue.

Ergogenic Effects of β-Alanine and Carnosine: Proposed Future Research to Quantify Their Efficacy

This review focuses on their roles as ergogenic aids to exercise performance and suggests how to best quantify the former’s merits as a buffer and blood lactate kinetics, whereby the concentration of the metabolite is measured as it enters and leaves the vasculature over time, affords the best opportunity to assess the merits of β-alanine supplementation”s ergogenic effect.

Acute carnosine and β-alanine supplementation increases the compensated part of the ventilation vs work rate relationship during a ramp incremental cycle test in physically active men.

A positive effect of acute Carn-ßA supplementation on the compensated part of the exercise is demonstrated, which should be taken into account by nutritionists and athletes searching for nutritional supplements, when a quick effect based on an acute dose is required.

The Acute Administration of Carnosine and Beta-Alanine Does Not Improve Running Anaerobic Performance and has No Effect on the Metabolic Response to Exercise

Investigation of the acute effects of carnosine ingestion on anaerobic intermittent per- formance and the responses of blood insulin, glucose, bicarbonate and lactate concentrations to exercise found no significant difference and it is not clear whether these results may be attributed to an insufficient dose of Carnivaline or to a lack of acute effect per se.



Carnosine loading and washout in human skeletal muscles.

It can be concluded that carnosine is a stable compound in human skeletal muscle, confirming the absence of carnosinase in myocytes, and shows that washout periods for crossover designs in supplementation studies for muscle metabolites may sometimes require months rather than weeks.

Physiological role of carnosine in contracting muscle.

The effect of carnosine on overcoming muscle fatigue appears to be related to its ability to buffer the increased H(+) concentration following high-intensity work.

Influence of β-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity

The increase in TWD with supplementation followed the increase in muscle carnosine, which was significantly increased by +58.8% and +80.1% after 4 and 10 wks β-alanine supplementation.

beta-Alanine supplementation augments muscle carnosine content and attenuates fatigue during repeated isokinetic contraction bouts in trained sprinters.

Proton MRS can be used to noninvasively quantify human muscle Carnosine content and muscle carnosine is increased by oral beta-alanine supplementation in sprint-trained athletes; carnosinesine loading slightly but significantly attenuated fatigue in repeated bouts of exhaustive dynamic contractions; and the increase in muscle Carnival did not improve isometric endurance or 400-m race time.


The carnosine contents measured are the highest recorded in human muscle and represent a 20% contribution to muscle buffering capacity, and Taurine was 38% lower in bodybuilders, though the difference was not significant.

The effects of 10 weeks of resistance training combined with β-alanine supplementation on whole body strength, force production, muscular endurance and body composition

In conclusion, 10 weeks of resistance training alone did not change M-[Carn], and the aim of this investigation was to investigate if increased M:[Carn] brought about through β-ala supplementation had a positive effect on training responses.

The Effect of Sprint Training on Skeletal Muscle Carnosine in Humans

The results suggest that the increases in skeletal muscle carnosine concentration following sprint training may be associated with the increase in sustainability of high power during 30-s maximal cycle ergometer sprinting.

β-Alanine supplementation reduces acidosis but not oxygen uptake response during high-intensity cycling exercise

Results indicate that chronic β-alanine supplementation, which presumably increased muscle carnosine content, can attenuate the fall in blood pH during high-intensity exercise.

Creatine supplementation augments skeletal muscle carnosine content in senescence-accelerated mice (SAMP8).

It is concluded that skeletal muscle tissue exhibits a significant decline in HCD content at old age, and oral creatine supplementation is able to transiently but potently increase muscle carnosine and anserine content, which coincides with improved resistance to contractile fatigue.

Gender-related differences in carnosine, anserine and lysine content of murine skeletal muscle

The results suggest that differences in the concentrations of carnosine and anserine in skeletal muscles of CD1 mice may be related with the anabolic action of androgens on skeletal muscle.