Muscarinic and nicotinic contributions to cognitive function and cortical blood flow

@article{Gitelman1992MuscarinicAN,
  title={Muscarinic and nicotinic contributions to cognitive function and cortical blood flow},
  author={Darren R. Gitelman and Isak Prohovnik},
  journal={Neurobiology of Aging},
  year={1992},
  volume={13},
  pages={313-318}
}
Muscarinic receptor blockade in humans induces a transient memory deficit claimed to mimic aspects of Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is also strongly associated with a specific blood flow abnormality in parietotemporal cortex; we previously showed that, despite induction of a dementia-like state, scopolamine does not produce these blood flow changes. In the present study, we administered both muscarinic and nicotinic receptor blockade (using scopolamine and mecamylamine) to seven elderly healthy… 
Combined Nicotinic and Muscarinic Blockade in Elderly Normal Volunteers: Cognitive, Behavioral, and Physiologic Responses
TLDR
Pupil size increased when mecamylamine was added to scopolamine, while systolic blood pressure and pulse changed in concordance with ganglionic blockade, and results suggest this muscarinic–nicotinic drug combination may better model Alzheimer's disease than either drug alone.
Physostigmine Reversal of Scopolamine-Induced Hypofrontality
  • I. Prohovnik, S. Arnold, G. Smith, L. Lucas
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
  • 1997
TLDR
The hypothesis that all three consequences of scopolamine, namely, reduction of mean flow, frontal deficit, and memory impairment, are cholinergically mediated is supported and the suggestion that only nicotinic receptors are associated with the characteristic parietal deficit of AD is strengthened.
Nicotinic versus muscarinic blockade alters verbal working memory-related brain activity in older women.
TLDR
Preliminary results suggest that brain activation patterns are sensitive to cholinergic modulation in postmenopausal women and that differential effects may be observed following nicotinic versus muscarinic blockade.
Separate and combined effects of scopolamine and mecamylamine on human event‐related brain potentials
Anticholinergic drugs have been proposed as possible acute model for investigating geriatric‐associated cognitive deficits, but the interactive effect of muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic blockade
Combined cerebral blood flow effects of a cholinergic agonist (milameline) and a verbal recognition task in early Alzheimer’s disease
TLDR
The effects on rCBF appear to be augmented by the performance of a cognitively demanding task, raising the possibility that such tasks could assist in building an awareness of the functional neuropsychopharmacology of drugs designed for cognitive enhancement.
Age-Related Effects of the Nicotinic Antagonist Mecamylamine on Cognition and Behavior
TLDR
The results indicate that acute blockade of nicotinic receptor function can produce measurable and significant cognitive impairment similar to some deficits seen in dementing illnesses, and that there is an age-related increase in sensitivity to Nicotinic blockade.
EEG correlates of acute nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic blockade: separate and combined administration of mecamylamine and scopolamine in normal human subjects
Anticholinergic drugs have been proposed as a possible acute model for human electroencephalographic (EEG) studies focused on dementia but the interactive effects of muscarinic and nicotinic
A short review of cognitive and functional neuroimaging studies of cholinergic drugs: implications for therapeutic potentials
Summary. In the last 20 years a cholinergic dysfunction has been the major working hypothesis for the pharmachology of memory disorders. Cholinergic antagonists and lesions impair and different
Effects of nicotinic cholinergic agents on cognitive functioning in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease
The loss of central nicotinic receptors is a neurochemical hallmark of several degenerative brain disorders, notably Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's Disease (PD). Investigation of the effects of
Acute nicotinic blockade produces cognitive impairment in normal humans
TLDR
The results of this study indicate that acute blockade of nicotinic receptor function can produce measurable and significant cognitive impairment, even in non-smoking normals.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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