BACKGROUND Mini-invasive techniques for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), such as endoscopic injections of inert materials, have been introduced in recent years. However, results are still preliminary. Cell injection has emerged as an alternative strategy in both vesicoureteral reflux and incontinence. Here we report, for the first time, the injection of muscle precursor cells (MPCs) in the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). MATERIALS AND METHODS MPCs were derived from expanded satellite cells isolated from skeletal muscle fibers of green fluorescent protein (GFP) positive mice. Via laparotomy, GFP-negative mice were subjected to cryoinjury of GEJ followed by injection of MPCs (experimental animals), bone marrow derived cells, or saline (controls). RESULTS Immunofluorescence analyses of experimental GEJs demonstrated coexpression of GFP and desmin in grafted cells. GFP+ muscle neofibers were evident at 4 wk after injection. Coexpression of GFP and smooth muscle actin was also observed at 2 wk. CONCLUSIONS Satellite cells could be easily harvested, expanded in culture, and used as injectable substance in the GEJ. These results could be the background for the development of a new injection technique for GERD treatment, which might combine bulging and functional actions.